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2020 / 4

NATURE


Mineral Resources


Current State and Development Prospects of Transboundary Groundwater Monitoring in Belarus and Russia

M.M. Cherepanskiy1, Dr.Sc. (Geology), V.I. Gipchik2, S.V. Spektor3, Can.Sc. (Geology), N.V. Alekseeva3, E.M. Cherevach2, T.A. Kononova2, S.O. Mamchik4, Can.Sc. (Geology)

1Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State University for Geological Prospecting,

2RPC for Geology, Branch of the Institute of Geology, RB

3FGBU "Gidrospetsgeologiya" Rosnedr

4Belarusian State Technological University

The article deals with the organization of underground water monitoring on the Belarusian and Russian transboundary territory. There are goals and objectives of cross-border monitoring considered as well as data on the observation network and observed indicators provided in the article. A brief geological and hydrogeological characteristic and assessment of the state of underground water bodies in the basins of the Western Dvina and Dnepr rivers is given. Problematic issues and directions for further development of monitoring of transboundary groundwaters are outlined.

Keywords: groundwater, groundwater monitoring, assessment of the state of transboundary aquifers, resource prediction.


Water Resources


Analysis of the Dynamics of Water Use in the Moscow Region

N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), E.V. Muravyova, A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc. (Economics), NIA-Priroda

The article analyzes the key statistics characterizing the availability of water resources in the Moscow region (i.e., Moscow and the Moscow region), specific elements of water use, including measures to protect water bodies, as well as a number of related and additional aspects. Separately there are considered issues of municipal water supply and sanitation in the region, as a dominant in the general sphere of water use in various sectors of the economy. The study is based on official generalized information obtained as a result of statistical observations on a wide range of reporting forms. Moreover, in a number of cases a critical assessment of the specified information is given in terms of its reliability, intelligibility and consistency; recommendations are made to eliminate the noted deficiencies.

Keywords: water resources, Moscow region, water use, protection of water bodies, public water supply and sanitation, information reliability.


Land Resources and Soils


Cadastral Value of Radioactively Contaminated Lands in Agrolandscapes of the Central Federal District

P.M. Sapozhnikov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Agriculture), E.A. Kleutina, Faculty of Soil Science, The Lomonosov Moscow State University

The level of radioactive contamination of various soils of landscapes of the Central Federal District is shown. The types and effectiveness of rehabilitation measures to reduce the level of radioactive contamination of agricultural products to acceptable levels are determined, and the methodology for calculating the cadastral value of lands in areas of radioactive contamination is refined. The reduction in cadastral value in areas of radioactive contamination can reach 90%. In the area of radioactive contamination, it is proposed to reduce the rate of land tax or tax avoidance.

Keywords: radioactive contamination, agricultural land, cadastral value, rehabilitation of radioactive lands, differential rental approach, economic assessment.


Forest Resources


Russia Forest Sector Development: the New Look: Part 2. The New Management Model (The continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin №3, 2020)

E.A. Shvarts1, Dr. Sc. (Geograph.), I.V. Starikov2, Cand. Sc. (Economics), V.S. Kharlamov3, A.Yu. Yaroshenko4, Cand. Sc. (Biology), N.M. Shmatkov5, A.V. Kobyakov6, Cand. Sc. (Agriculture), A.V. Ptichnikov1, Cand. Sc. (Geography), F.Yu. Lukovtsev7, O.V. Tyuleneva8, R.Yu. Golunov9, Cand. Sc. (Technology), A.A. Shegolev10

1The Institute of Geography, RAS

2VNII Ecology of The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russia

3The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russia

4Greenpeace Russia

5Forest Stewardship Council of the Russia

6Mytischi Branch of Bauman Moscow State Technical University

7ANO Daurian club

8Research Center "Leader"

9Center for Special Projects and Programs

10WWF Russia

The article is focused at a principally new forest sector strategy development to be oriented first of all at transition to sustainable development of the forest sector. Actual strategic management tools are described which could help achieving critical change at the Russian forest sector and increase forest management effectiveness and efficiency through dialogue of authorities, business and science. The following questions are covered: digital transformation and access to reliable data on forests, qualified labor resources, increase of products’ competitiveness and financial infrastructure development. Authors provide for discussion draft indicators and landmarks to measure effectiveness of the Russian forest sector development. In the conclusion proposals are provided for organization of collaboration between stakeholders to modernize and improve forest management effectiveness based on a productive dialogue between authorities, business and science, achieving innovations driving force. 

Keywords: forest sector, strategy development, forest management, use of forests, green finance, digital data on forests, annual allowable cut, voluntary forest certification 



Biological Resources of Land


Forage Spectra of Taiga and Forest-Steppe Wild Ungulates in Natural-Anthropogenic Complexes of the Cis-Urals and the Urals

M.G. Dvornikov1, Prof.-Dr. Sc. (Biology), R.S. Karipov1, S.V. Saksonov2, Prof.-Dr. Sc. (Biology)

1Russian Research Institute of Game Management and Fur Farming, RAS, Kirov, Russia

2Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin of RAS – Branch of SamSC RAS, Togliatti, Russia

In the review, the authors consider the relationship: plants - wild ungulates in zonal ecological systems. The authors cite the impact loads, at different densities of elk, Siberian roe deer, red deer, sika deer and wild boar, on plants during foraging and marking of the territory. Relationships have arisen over a long period of ecosystem dynamics. The impacts of animals are manifested at different time stages of reforestation. Intact natural complexes (NC) with background plants affected by ungulates have been preserved in reserves (standards of nature). Natural-atropogenic complexes (NAC) have been significantly developed by economic activity. When analyzing the forage spectra of ungulates over the 80 year period, we took into account the quality characteristics of the state of the NC environment, the consumption of plants by animals, and their geochemical parameters in the system of plants-ungulates-excrement-litter-soil. Monitoring of the spectra of forage background plants of animals as bioindicators of the ecological assessment of the state of the habitat and its components in specific NC and NAC is necessary for the preservation, reproduction, use and modeling of highly productive communities of plants and animals in integrated nature management.

Keywords: wild ungulate animals of the Urals, spectra of forage plants of ungulates, indicators of the quality of habitats and forage plants, integrated nature management.


Climatic Resources


Changes in the Current Climate Norm of Atmospheric Precipitation in Western Siberia

I.M. Ablova, Cand. Sc. (Biology), Omsk State Pedagogical University

The results of the analysis of statistical characteristics of the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation and the number of days with precipitation ≥1 mm of climatic seasons in the territory of Western Siberia are presented. The research was based on a series of observations on weather stations in Western Siberia for the period 1961-2010. Calculations for 30-year periods in 10-year increments: 1971-2000 and 1981-2010 and comparison of these indicators with the indicators of the base period 1961-1990 allowed us to conclude about changes in the amount of precipitation and the length of days with precipitation in the current climate.

Keywords: climate of Western Siberia, variability of precipitation, base period, seasonality of precipitation, duration of days with precipitation.


Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas


On Comprehensive Ecological and Microbiological Assessment of Mineralized Water in Artificial Micro-Reservoirs for Recreation

А.А. Shayhutdinova1,2, Cand. Sc. (Technology), O.A. Gogoleva1, Cand. Sc. (Biology), M.Yu. Garitskaya2, Cand. Sc. (Biology)

1Institute of cellular and intracellular symbiosis Orenburg Federal research center of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,

2Orenburg State University

The article suggests the comprehensive salt index assessment of mineralized water from artificial reservoirs located in the regional natural conservation area, natural landmark “Tuzlukkol muds” for recreational use in 2017-2019. The water under research belongs to sodium chloride type of moderately hard waters with a high sulfate content. The research registers an excess of 1.1-3.2 times for cadmium and 1.3-13.9 times for ammonium nitrogen. The water reveals a high content of coliform bacteria. The article states a high anthropogenic load exerted on the area under study. According to the integral water quality index the water is characterized as “moderately dirty” that prevents it from being used for recreation.

Keywords: natural conservation area, natural landmark, artificial micro-reservoirs, recreation resources, organoleptic parameters, hydro-chemical parameters, sanitary-bacteriological research, salt index.


Environmental Protection


Research and Regulation of the Ecological State of Soils in the Impact Zone of the Metallurgical Plant

M.V. Evdokimova, Cand. Sc. (Biology), G.P. Glazunov, Prof.-Dr. Sc. (Biology), A.S. Yakovlev, Prof.-Dr. Sc. (Biology), I.O. Plekhanova, Dr. Sc. (Biology), R.A. Aimaletdinov, M.V. Shestakova, Faculty of Soil Science, The Lomonosov Moscow State University

The macrokinetic characteristics of the response of vegetation cover to soil contamination with heavy metals in the vicinity of Norilsk were studied to justify the approach to ranking the soil cover of territories under the influence of metallurgical plant emissions by the degree of intensity of their ecological state. The purpose of the study was to substantiate the possibility of an objective quantitative assessment of the ecological state of soils contaminated with heavy metals based on remote sensing data using a theoretical model of the response of living things to stressors in the form of heavy metals. The study is based on obtaining experimental data of the "dose-response" type and their analysis using the previously derived theoretical model of the response of a living animal to the stressor, the special points of which set the threshold concentrations of the stressor, which serve as the basis for ranking soils according to the degree of intensity of their ecological state.

Keywords: ecological state, bioindication, mathematical modeling, analysis of remote sensing data, vegetation index


Longyear Monitoring of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Transformation and Migritoin in Soil of a Contaminated Sitein Town Serpukhov of Moscow Region

M.Yu. Lapushkin1, N.N. Lukyanova2, Can. Sc. (Chemistry), G.K. Vasil'eva3, Cand. Sc. (Biology)

1 All-Russian Research Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation named after A.N. Kostyakova

2Research and Production Association "Typhoon" of Roshydromet

3Institute for Physical, Chemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences

The article presents the generalized results of a twenty-year monitoring of PCB content in the soil at a site near LLC «Serpukhov condenser plant «KVAR». It has been shown, that in the period from 2003 to 2019, the PCB concentration in the upper 20 cm layer in the central part of the plot decreased from 4300 to 5.5 mg/kg that was 90 times more than their MPC in soil. PCB reduction occurred because of slow microbial degradation of mainly 3- and 4-chlorinated congeners, as well as their removal with surface or groundwater to the site boundary.

Keywords: contaminated soil, PCB congeners, biodegradation, leaching


Estimation of Spatio-Temporal distribution of Polluting Substances in Small Rivers and Reservoirs Urbanized Areas (on the Example of oz. Spartak and r. Yeltsovka-2 of Novosibirsk)

A.S. Tushina, E.V. Roshchina, O.V. Spirenkova, Cand. Sc. (Technology), Siberian State University of Water Transport

In article a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the spatio-temporal distribution of pollutants in the water of the water bodies urbanized areas is carried out on the example of Lake. Spartak and p. Yeltsovka-2 of the city of Novosibirsk, hydrochemical studies were conducted, as a result of which a conclusion was made on the quality of water. According to the values of the specific combinatorial index of water pollution, the UKHVW of the water of the objects under consideration can be classified as "extremely dirty".

Keywords: small rivers, ponds, pollutants, self-cleaning.


Contamination of Heavy Metals of the Peksha River with Trace Elements and Assessment of Technogenic Pressure

G.Yu. Tolkachev, Cand. Sc. (Geography), B.I. Korzhenevskiy, Can. Sc. (Geology), All-Russian Research Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation named after A.N. Kostyakova

As indicators of pollution, we consider the contamination of the heavy metals: As, Hg, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, Mn of the Peksha river with the listed microelements. The assessment was carried out without taking into account specific pollutant enterprises. A fraction of less than 0.02 mm was extracted from the sediments. The content of these elements and the values obtained were ranked according to the classification of pollution classes (igeo-classes), levels of technogenic pressure and the total indicator of toxic pollution. The highest level of pollution of the Peksha is observed in the upper reaches, at the exit from the town of Kolchugino - an industrial and transport hub with a population of more than 40 thousand people. Downstream pollution levels of sediments are significantly reduced – self-cleaning occurs due to the lack of active sources of pollution.

Keywords: technogenic pressure, sediments, pollution level, heavy metals, sorb fraction, environmental monitoring.


Cartography


Fungi in the Red Data Books of the Russian Federation

A.A. Prisyazhnaya1, Can. Sc. (Biology), S.A. Kruglova1, V.R. Khrisanov1, Can. Sc. (Geograph.), V.V. Snakin1,2, Dr. Sc. (Biology)

1The Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences

2The Moscow State University,

The analysis of the lists of species of fungi listed in the national and regional Red Data Books of the Russian Federation. Currently, more than 800 species of fungi are protected at the regional level in the country, of which 24 species have federal protection status. An analysis of spatial distribution has shown that in a significant territory of Russia the occurrence of species of fungi protected at the federal level is low. The diversity of these species is concentrated mainly in the central part of the Russian Plain, as well as in the regions of the Amur-Sakhalin, Crimean-Caucasian, Altai-Sayan physical-geographical countries. In the Red Data Books of 80 subjects of the Russian Federation, fungi are included in the lists of rare and threatened species. According to the number of species of fungi protected at the regional level, central part of the Russian Plain the Kola-Karelian and Altai-Sayan physical-geographical countries are distinguished.

Keywords: fungi, species diversity, lists of rare and threatened species, Red Data Book of Russian Federation, regional Red Data Books, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, ecological mapping


NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY


Anniversaries


To the 70th anniversary of Prof. Alexandr Nikolaevich Chumakov


Regional Events


Analysis of the Dynamics of Violations of Land Legislation Based on the Materials of Land Supervision in a Complex Constituent Entity of the Russian Federation (Tyumen Region)

E.G. Chernykh1, Cand. Sc. (Economics), A.P. Sizov2, Dr. Sc. (Technology), I.V. Savchuk3

1Industrial University of Tyumen

2Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography

3Direction of the Rosselkhoznadzor for the Tyumen Region, YaNAO and HMAO

Based on the analysis of the dynamics of violations of land legislation, it is shown that the implementation of state land supervision by federal executive bodies allows for the implementation of uniform principles of law enforcement in the Russian Federation, and through the execution of other functions, it is possible to quickly introduce new forms of exercise of supervisory powers, thereby increasing the effectiveness of control and supervision.

Keywords: state land supervision, violation of land legislation, land monitoring, Tyumen region, land resources


Human Societiy and Nature


On the Way to the Harmony of Nature and Society (in memory of outstanding environmental philosophers)

I.K. Liseev1, Prof.-Dr. Sc. (Philosoph.), N.M. Mammadov2, Prof.-Dr. Sc. (Philosoph.), professor, A.N. Chumakov3, Prof.-Dr. Sc. (Philosoph.)

1Institute of Phylosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences

2Russian Academy of Public Administration

3Lomonosov Moscow State University

The article shows the role and significance of two recently departed most authoritative Russian environmental philosophers in the development of humanitarian problems of interaction between nature and society, the concept of sustainable development and theoretical aspects of the noosphere. Their outstanding role in the formation and development of social ecology as a modern interdisciplinary field of scientific knowledge is also evaluated.

Keywords: ecology, nature, society, philosophy, science, noosphere, sustainable development.


Researcher of the Flora of the Middle Volga Region (in Memory of Sergei Vladimirovich Saksonov, 09.03.1960-16.12.2020)

G.S. Rozenberg, Corresponding Member of the RAS, S.A. Senator, Can. Sc. (Biology),

Samara Federal research center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ecology of the Volga river basin of the Russian Academy of Science

On December 16, 2020 the famous researcher of the flora of the Middle Volga region, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation Sergey Vladimirovich Saksonov has died.

Key words. Flora, botanical geography, nature conservation, history of science, Russian Botanical Society, Middle Volga Region, S.V. Saksonov


Socio-Medical-Ecological Aspects of Values in the Studies of a Healthy Lifestyle in Youth Life in the Conditions of a Pandemia from Coronavirus in the City of Khabarovsk

V.V. Vlasova-Saykova, Khabarovsk branch of the St. Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation Russian Federation

The object of the author’s own research, based on methodological material, is the values of a healthy lifestyle, which in a pandemic from a coronavirus in the city of Khabarovsk should show young people and government the basic socio-medical and environmental aspects and ways to reach a stable healthy social environment that excludes possible pathology of health.

Keywords: socio-medical-ecological values, healthy lifestyle; coronavirus; pandemic; health; hygiene; young people.


Bookshelf


Snakin V.V. Ecology, global natural processes and the evolution of the biosphere. Encyclopedic Dictionary.


A.N. Chumakov. Way to Philosophy. Works of different years: monograph.



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