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2020 / 3

NATURE


General Problems of Nature Management


Second Demographic Transition and Food Security

V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Research Centre "Agroprognoz", N.N. Rybalskiy, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article describes the history and current state of the food security concept. Analyzed the demographic statistics data in the application to the theory of demographic transitions. The tectonic shifts in the dynamics of human reproductive behavior are analyzed and, as a result, the risks in achieving food security for the period up to 2100 are estimated. The justification of the probability of depopulation and the crisis of overproduction is given. Highlighted the demographic stages and restrictions that do not allow to solve the problem of hunger on Earth and achieve food security. Studied new statistical data during the second demographic transition and its impact on the forecast funnel of the total population. Substantiated the scientific inconsistency of the modern interpretation of the food security concept.

Keywords: civilizational transformation, food resources, demography, fight against hunger, food policy, sustainable development goals, SDG, demographic transition, first demographic transition, second demographic transition, third demographic transition, land resources, soil resources, rational land use, ecological safety.


Mineral Resources


Mineral Resourses, Earth Energetic and Society

S.V. Belov, Dr.Sc. (Geology), “OZGEO” jsc

Growth of ore genesis intensive in geologic history as attraction of Earth Energetic acceleration is analyzed. In connect to the pandemic of COVID-19, the manifestations of epidemics and pandemics that have hit humanity over its long history are analyzed. Exponential growth of their number and degree of catastrophic is shown. Their relationships with such manifestations of endogenous activity of the Earth as seismicity, volcanism, etc., as well as the relationship of these components of geological life of the planet with various social cataclysms have been analyzed. Their joint analysis as a single geo-bio-social process made it possible to draw prognostic conclusions, showing that in the coming years the world community can expect disasters of diverse nature. In Russia, in Far Eastern Federal District recommended the establishment of an interdisciplinary center for the integrated study and monitoring of geo-bio-social processes.

Keywords: coronavirus, endogenous activity end energetic of the Earth, Geo-Bio-Social processes.


Participant in the Creation of the Mineral Resource Base of Russia's Nuclear Shield

E.P. Dubinin, K.A. Scripko, Earth Science Museum of Lomonosov Moscow State University

25 years of his life devoted to the exploration of uranium deposits in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan Alexander Aleksandrovich Kovalev  Chief Researcher, Museum of Earth Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Honorary Member of the RANS, Honored Scientist of MSU, Honorary Worker of Science and Technology Russian Federation. For the discovery and exploration of Kavaksky in Kyrgyzstan and Kurdai in Kazakhstan uranium deposits to Kovalev twice - in 1953 and in 1954 - State (Stalin) prizes were awarded. With the name of A.A. Kovalev’s strengthening of the mineral resource base of Russia, the approval of the ideas of the New Global Tectonics (tectonics of lithospheric plates) in our country and the introduction of this theory into the practice of geological surveying and mineral exploration. A.A. Kovalev is the author of more than 250 scientific papers, including 12 monographs.

Key words: history of geology, personalities, uranium deposits, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan.


Water Resources


Depletion of Autumn-Winter Drain in Cryolitozone Rivers (on the Example of Kolymsk Water-Balance Station Rivers

M.V. Ushakov, Can.Sc. (Geology), North-East Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Institute n.a. N.A. Shilo, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences

In the northeast of Russia in the autumn-winter period, the use of river water resources is very difficult or completely impossible due to the freezing of small rivers. Purpose of work: to obtain a regional formula for predicting the hydrograph of the runoff of streams of the Kolyma water-balance station in the autumn-winter period before the date of freezing. The depletion curves of the autumn-winter runoff are well approximated by the logarithmic function. The parameters of the logarithmic function are well correlated with autumn water content. An equation was obtained by which it is possible to calculate the daily water discharges of streams from October 1 to the estimated freezing date. The calculated curves adequately describe the depletion of the flow of streams for any year. The average absolute error in calculating the date the flow ends is four days.

Keywords: water discharge, logarithmic function, hydrograph, river freezing


Current State of Surface Waters Kabardino-Balkarian Republic

A.Ya. Tamakhina, Dr.Sc. (Agriculture), A.B. Ittiev, Can.Sc. (Chemistry), Kabardino-Balkarian state agrarian University named after V.M. Kokov

The article presents the results of monitoring the main rivers of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. The water in most of the gates has an average mineralization and average hardness, meets the standards for pH, dissolved oxygen, chloride content and permanganate oxidability. As a result of anthropogenic pollution, the water was found to exceed the MPC for BOP5, COD, and sulfates. The increased content of metals in river water is associated with the presence of polymineral ores in the entire catchment area. According to the results of monitoring water quality by the specific combinatorial index of pollution, water in the Lesken, Cherek, Nalchik and Chegem rivers is polluted, Terek, Baksan, Urukh, Zolka very polluted, Malka and Urvan' dirty.

Keywords: water resources, rivers, monitoring, anthropogenic pollution, treatment facilities, specific combinatorial index of water pollution.


Land Resources and Soils


The Method of Calculating the Harm Caused to Soil, What Is Wrong?

Stolbovoy V.S., Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), Grebennikov A.V., Dr.Sc. (Agriculture), Federal Research Center “V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute”, Moscow

The study revises the scientific bases of the methodology for calculating the economic harm caused to soils as an object of environmental protection. The conclusion is that the Methodology does not meet concepts of soil as an independent surface formation having a specific morphogenetic profile and does not use the opportunities provided by the modern digital state soil-information resource (EGRPR 2014). The criteria used in the Methodology for determining soil parameters such as the thickness of soils, the fertile layer, confinement to forest growing zones, confinement to the category of land and types of use are formal and lack any link with soils. The Methodology also does not use modern information technologies. It is proposed to bring the Methodology in line with the Unified State Register of Soil Resources (EGRPR 2014), which allows assessing the harm caused to each specific soil for the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: soil, economic harm to soils, state register of soil resources


Differentiation of Agricultural Land Agrolandscapes of the Kaliningrad Region by Cadastral Value

P.M. Sapozhnikov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Agriculture), N.I. Danilova, The Lomonosov Moscow State University

The values of specific indicators of the cadastral value of agricultural land of agrolandscapes of the Kaliningrad region are determined. The highest values (10.5 rubles / m² and 10.1 rubles / m²) were obtained for sod-carbonate and alluvial sod saturated soil, respectively, and the smallest values were found for sod-podzolic soil (2.8 rubles / m²). The sensitivity of calculating the cadastral value of land to various soil and geographical conditions is shown.

Keywords: specific indicators of the cadastral cost of lands, Kaliningrad region, normative yield of agricultural crops.


Forest Resources


Russia Forest Sector Development: the New Look: Part 1. Sustainable Development

E.A. Shvarts1, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), I.V. Starikov2, Cand. Sc. (Economics), V.S. Kharlamov3, A.Yu. Yaroshenko4, Cand. Sc. (Biology), N.M. Shmatkov5, A.V. Kobyakov6, Cand. Sc. (Agriculture), A.V. Ptichnikov1, Cand. Sc. (Geography), F.Yu. Lukovtsev7, O.V. Tyuleneva8, R.Yu. Golunov9, Cand. Sc. (Technology), A.A. Shegolev10

1The Institute of Geography, RAS

2VNII Ecology of The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russia

3The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russia

4Greenpeace Russia

5Forest Stewardship Council of the Russia

6Mytischi Branch of Bauman Moscow State Technical University

7ANO Daurian club

8Research Center "Leader"

9Center for Special Projects and Programs

10WWF Russia

The article is focused on development of approaches to crisis in Russian forest management. The goal of this article is to develop an absolutely new and innovative strategy for forest sector development to be focused first of all at transition to sustainability. Forest management should be a key component of the forest sector with a close link to contiguous sectors. Strategies for these sectors development should be harmonized. Long term risks and challenges are defined, first of all for running extensive forest management, priorities for sector’s development are determined. Findings are based on opinion review of multiple stakeholders and beneficiaries of the forest sector and authors will continue stakeholders’ involvement into discussion of strategic decisions and proposals for the sector. Two further chapters of the article is planned to discover tools proposed in this paper, development recommendations and conclusions.

Keywords: forest sector, development strategy, forest industry complex, forest management, use of forests, Russian economics, annual allowable cut, contiguous branches of forest management, economic effectiveness.


Biodiversity


Representativeness of the list of insects in the Red Book of the City of Moscow

N.A. Sobolev1, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), L.B. Volkova2

1Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences

2Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences

The list of insects in the Red Book of the city of Moscow was updated on July 2, 2019. It is examined from the standpoint of its environmental representativeness and the possibility of its application in environmental protection. Ecological complexes of insects characterizing the environmental conditions in their habitats have been identified. Butterflies (Rhopalocera) are studied the most detailed.

Key words: Red Data Book, Moscow, Insects, rare species, environmental representativeness, ecological complexes, natural areas, greened areas, natural biodiversity.


Biological Resources of Land


Variations in the course of ASF epizootics in the natural environment on the territory of the Russian Federation

O.A. Manuylova1, A.S. Igolkin1, Can.Sc. (Veterinary), N.L. Pankova2, Can.Sc. (Biology)

1FGBI Federal Centre for Animal Health

2FGBI Oka State Nature Biosphere Reserve

The authors collected information on the revealed variations in the course of ASF epizootics in local areas of the natural environment. Bio- and abiotic conditions characterizing the territories under consideration and probably affecting the differences in the course of ASF epizootics are considered. The main model territories are represented by the Voronezh and Oksky reserves. In a comparative analysis cases wild boar deaths, not only similar factors were noted, but also some differences were noted that influenced the course of epizootics and, ultimately, the total or partial death of the wild boar population in the respective territories. One of the considered variations indicates the likelihood of outbreaks caused, including by attenuated variants of ASF virus isolates. Based on the above materials, it is premature to draw definitive conclusions about the degree of influence of individual factors (conditions) on the course of the epizootic process in ASF. However, an additional comparative study of a set of factors (including immune status, annual site size, and the characteristics of the migratory characteristics of wild boars in these populations) may make it possible to determine models typical of each of the packages of components of the epizootological triad.

Keywords: wild boar, African swine fever, models of the course of the ASF epizootic, variations in the course of ASF epizootics in the natural environment, factors of the epizootological triad.


Climatic Resources


Present-day state of the climate and its changes on the territory of Russian Federation: an outlook

M.Yu. Bardin 1,2,3, Can.Sc. (Phys.-Mathemat.), E.Ya. Rankova 1,2, Dr.Sc. (Phys.-Mathemat.), T.V. Platova1, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), O.F. Samokhina1, U.I. Antipina1

1Yu.A. Izrael’ Institute of Global Climate and Ecology (IGCE)

2Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences

3A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences

The state of the temperature regime of the global climate, formed by the end of the 2010s in the process of modern warming started about the 70s in the last century, is analyzed. Its characteristic features over the territory of Russia are considered, including temperature extremes and changes in precipitation statistics. Probable negative impacts of climate change are discussed.

Keywords: global climate, climate state, climate change, climate forecast, climate monitoring


Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas


Use of Innovative Technologies in Detecting Violations on the Territory of Protected Areas Bordering the Green Zones of the Vladivostok Agglomeration

N.G. Rozlomiy1, Can.Sc. (Biology), G.V. Gukov1, Dr.Sc. (Agriculture), O.V.Linevich

1Primorskaya State Agricultural Academy, Ussuriisk

2Land of the Leopard National Park, Vladivostok

In the article the analysis of offences in 2011-2018 recorded in the territory of green zones of cities of Vladivostok agglomeration through a comprehensive program of MIST developed in the framework of the project of wildlife conservation (WCS) with support from MNR and USA Agency for international development (USAID). The program "Big Vladivostok" around the territory of Vladivostok, within a system of cities, forming in the perspective of Vladivostok city agglomeration, it is necessary to consider that the earth's green areas are contiguous with protected areas (national Park "Land of leopard", Ussuri state nature reserve them. V. L. Komarova et al.).

Keywords: Primorye territory, protected areas, green zone of Vladivostok and Ussuriysk, a comprehensive program MIST, types of offenses, itinerary patrols.


Environmental Protection


Comparison of the Real Impact of an Object That Has a Negative Impact on the Environment With the Requirements of Environmental Legislation (Using the Example of the Chelyabinsk Landfill)

Yu.I. Shmeleva1,2, N.G. Rybalsky1,3,4, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology)

1The Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

2OOO "Nordik Titan"

3The National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

4The Russian Ecological Academy, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article discusses the problems of adverse impacts of economic activities on the environment and related social, economic and other consequences of the implementation of the object of state environmental expertise, as well as ensuring the implementation of the constitutional rights of Russian citizens to information, a favorable natural environment and environmental safety.

Keywords: state ecological expertise, environmental impact assessment, environmental legislation.


Estimation of spatio-temporal distribution of polluting substances in small rivers and reservoirs urbanized areas (on the example of oz. Spartak and r. Yeltsovka-2 of Novosibirsk)

A.S. Tushina, E.V. Roshchina, O.V. Spirenkova, Can.Sc. (Engineer.)

Siberian State University of Water Transport

In article a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the spatio-temporal distribution of pollutants in the water of the water bodies urbanized areas is carried out on the example of Lake. Spartak and p. Yeltsovka-2 of the city of Novosibirsk, hydrochemical studies were conducted, as a result of which a conclusion was made on the quality of water. According to the values of the specific combinatorial index of water pollution, the UKHVW of the water of the objects under consideration can be classified as "extremely dirty"

Keywords: small rivers, ponds, pollutants, self-cleaning


NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY


Anniversaries


To the 70th anniversary of I.A. Trofimov


September 28 marks the 70th anniversary of the birth of Ilya Aleksandrovich TROFIMOV, Doctor of Geological Sciences, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Deputy Director for Research, Head. Laboratory of Geobotany and Agroecology of the Federal Scientific Center for Forage Production and Agroecology named after V.R. Williams (FNTS VIK nam. af. VR Williams), Chairman of the Moscow Regional Branch of the Rosekoacademy.


To the 75th Anniversary of the Main Botanical Garden nam. af. N.V. Tsitsina RAS

N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), E.V. Muravieva, The National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

The article is devoted to the history of creation, development and current state of the Main Botanical Garden nam. af. N.V. Tsitsina (GBS) RAS. On April 14, GBS RAS, the largest in Europe, celebrated its 75th anniversary. The main botanical garden is not only the same age, but also a symbol of the Victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War and peaceful life.

Keywords: botanical garden, plant biodiversity, collection funds and expositions, arboretum.


Regional Events


Renewed Sevastopol in the Context of Socio-Cultural Changes and Environmental Ecodesign

I.A. Sosunova1, Dr.Sc. (Sociology), G.N. Chilikina2, Cand. Sc. (Economics)

1The National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

2Peoples' Friendship University of Russia

The social mission of managers is considered. Significance in making managerial decisions of the universal human value system, environmental and managerial culture. Harmonization of relationships in society, which is important for Sevastopol - a city of federal significance. Attention is focused on the protection and enhancement of nature reserves, city greening, landscape design, public space harmonization, due to the architectural style, aesthetic and comfortable urban environment, as people quality life basis.

Keywords: mission of culture, ecological culture, management culture, moral and ethical principles, environmental ecodesign, human factor in regional management, social responsibility, life quality, Russia’s management elite update.


Human Societiy and Nature


Nostradamus, Thunberg, Tyutchev: Scenarios of the Ecological Future

G.S. Rozenberg, the Member-Correspondent, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Institute of Ecology of the Volga Basin, RAS

In this article, written in the form of an essay, the author makes an attempt to predict some scenarios for the future development of civilization at the turn of the third millennium in the framework of an impending environmental crisis, based on the Concept of Sustainable Development.

Keywords: pandemic, forecast, scenarios for the development of civilization, environmental crisis, sustainable development, Sustainable Development Goals.


Ecological Culture as the Basis for Environmental Protection

A.N. Chumakov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Philosoph.), the Moscow State University

The article analyzes the current state of the "society-nature" system, in which a person under the influence of the processes of globalization and the progressive development of science and technology becomes a real "geological force". In these conditions, the increase in environmental and other problems of interaction between nature and society seriously complicates social development and cannot be overcome without a well-organized system of environmental education. The main goal of such education is to form an ecological culture of the General population.

Keywords: ecology, nature, society, sustainable development, ecological culture, globalization, modern world, ecological education.


Calendar of Events


Moiseev N.N. About Russia in the XXI Century: Global Challenges, Risks and Solutions

With this name, on March 2-6, 2020, XXU111 Moiseev Readings (international scientific and practical conference), organized by the RAS Commission for the Study of the Scientific Heritage of Academician N.N. Moiseev, Faculty of Global Processes, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov and the International Independent Ecological and Political University (MNEPU) together with a number of scientific organizations, domestic and foreign universities.



Бюллетень «Использование и охрана природных ресурсов в России»

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