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2020 / 2

NATURE


General Problems of Nature Management


Use of Natural Resources as the Main Globalization Tool

V.V. Snakin, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University (Museum of Earth Sciences), the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The origins and the relationship of globalization with use of natural resources are analyzed. Due to the expansion of living matter (the pressure of life), globalization is realized thanks to various forms of environmental management, is accompanied by deep transformations of the natural environment and represents a natural stage in the development of human society. With the exhaustion of the extensive path of development, the degree of this transformation of the habitat increases sharply. To date, the biosphere has become a unified living space for the human population, transforming both externally and by the very essence of the processes occurring in it. But all these processes are the result of the intensification of nature management and the development of the biosphere, for which man at the stage of globalization has become the most powerful factor in accelerating evolution.

Keywords: life pressure, use of natural resources, globalization, environmental transformation, nature pollution, invasion, anthropogenic species distribution, population migration, nature conservation, globalization of science, biosphere evolution.


Mineral Resources


Conservative Protection in the Law of the Russian Federation "About Bowels"

V.B. Ibrahimov, Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Geology and Geophysics Institute, the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences (GGI ANAS)

The article addresses environmental and legal norms of the the Law of the Russian Federation "About Bowels" dedicated to the conservative protection of the Earth’s interior. There are noted terminological errors made in the acts, compared them terminology used by the other environmental norms and suggested ways for their correction. In order to harmonize bowels legislation of the Russian Federation with relevant provisions of the international environmental law, the article suggests that the new concept of "geological heritage objects" is introduced into the conceptual framework of the Law "About Bowels", to replace the older term of "specially protected geological objects". Finally, there are proposed amendments to be made as de lege ferenda to the provisions of the Law "About Bowels", based on the new concept.

Keywords: the Law of Russian Federationthe "About Bowels", environmental legal norms, conservative protection of the Earth’s interior, geological heritage objects, specially protected geological objects.


Water Resources


Improving the Efficiency of the Organization of Integrated Use Lower Amur in the Interests of Water Transport and Flood Protection

Yu.G. Bogomolov, Can.Sc. (Geology), S.M. Golubev, Can.Sc. (Geology), V.F. Ladygin, the All-Russian Public Organization «Russian Union of Hydrogeologists» (RosGidroGeo)

A proposal for the development of engineering measures to reduce the risks of outstanding (1 time in 55-100 years) and catastrophic (1 time in 100-200 years or more) floods in combination with improving the efficiency of navigation in the Lower Amur is presented. A project is proposed to build a transport water corridor from the port De-Castries, through the lakes Big and Small Kizi to the Lower Amur. The project will reduce the transport waterway from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to the port De-Castries by almost 600 km and will reduce damage on the Lower Amur from outstanding and catastrophic floods by building a parallel automatic catchment into the Tatar Strait.

Keywords: transport water corridor, flood, spillway, navigation, river runoff, land flooding, flood control measures, water use, flood runoff.


Land Resources and Soils


Algorithms for Creating Soil and Soil Resource Classifications

O.A. Makarov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The artical shows possibility of developing algorithms to different classifications of soils with the position of the view of soil as a function of the properties of the horizon (marfona), "design" of the soil profile (set and order horizons/martonov) and supplies the soil profile to a certain community profiles. The fundamental importance of creating a basic classification - the "Mendeleev soil table" – based on the genetic approach and being the "building material" for any other soil classifications was noted. It is pointed out that when developing the classification of soil resources, various criteria can be used to distinguish their groups (classification units) – land categories, types of land, the qualitative and ecological state and administrative-territorial belonging of land, subjects of land relations and legal regime, the degree of contrast of the soil cover, the dominant soil area, etc

Keywords: soil classification, "reference" taxon, soil standard, Central image of soil, soil resources, land categories, type of land.


Forest Resources


The Growth of Amursky Velvet Cultures (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.) on the Territory of the Green Zone of the Ussuriysk City

N.G. Roslomiy, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Primorsky State Agricultural Academy

Amur velvet (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.) naturally grows in the Primorsky Territory and in the southern regions of the Khabarovsk Territory and the Amur Region, and is cultivated in the northern regions to the city of St. Petersburg. Comprehensive studies of Amur velvet as a medicinal plant began relatively recently, but it can already be argued that the need for its various parts as a medicinal raw material will increase every year. The article analyzes the growth of cultures of Amur velvet. The object of research was the green zone of Ussuriysk. On 5 test plots, bonitet, age, diameter and height, completeness and reserve are determined.

Keywords: Primorsky Territory, Amur velvet, analysis of artificial plantings, growth progress, height, diameter, species number.


Biodiversity


Representativeness of Analysis of the Changes in the List of Insects Included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation

N.A. Sobolev, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Geography, L.B. Volkova, the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The insect part of the List of the animal world objects included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, which entered into force on April 2, 2020, is examined from the standpoint of the possibility of its use for the purpose of preserving the natural diversity and habitat of insects. The systematic statud, geographical distribution, and ecological confinement of Lepidoptera, listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, are discussed in more detail.

Keywords: Red Data Book, Insects, natural biodiversity, rare species, biogeography, territorial conservation.


Climatic Resources


Basic Views on Current Trends in Climate Dynamics and their Consequences for Frozen Rocks

M.M. Shatz, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), Yu.B. Skachkov,Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Permafrost nam. aft. P.I. Melnikov, the Siberian Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

There is done analysis of the history of the formation of modern ideas on the problem of climate dynamics trends. Several stages are distinguished, characterized by the predominance of certain approaches to assessing the problem. The publication focuses on the completion of the second stage (second decade of the 21st century), which includes recognition of the completion of warming and the likely onset of global cooling. In the future, a transitional period is expected from the second to the third stage, characterized by a predominance of supporters of the coming global cooling.

Keywords: main trends in climate dynamics, an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, global warming and cooling, Paris Climate Agreement, causes and consequences of climate change.


Environmental Protection


Agro-Environment and its Statistical Reflection

A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc. (Economy), D.A. Boriskin, the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», A.P. Demin, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Water Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), O.B. Tarasova, Can. Sc. (Economy), the Russian State Agrarian University-Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, N.G. Rybalskii, Dr.Sc. (Biology),

the Faculty of Soil Since, the Moscow State University

The proposed article analyzes the various approaches of a number of specialized international organizations to determine the scope and structure of agro-environmental (agroecological) activities, the main concepts, structures and definitions associated with this, as well as the proposed sets of accounting and statistical indicators. The author's concept of the essence of agro-environmental/agroecology is formulated and the Integrated Table of Agroecological Indicators is developed, containing over 250 specific indicators, combined in 18 sections. The main weakly defined problems of organizing agroecological statistics (in particular, the reflection of organic production in agriculture, the cultivation of raw materials for biofuel production, the fight against invasive species of flora and fauna, etc.), the shortcomings of classification constructions, and some issues of ecosystem accounting in the framework of the system of national accounts are described separately.

Keywords: agro-environment/agroecology, agricultural activity, environmental protection, rationalization of environmental management, international recommendations, statistical indicators, organic products, biofuels, ecosystem accounts, SNA.


Best Available Technologies: Risks of Implementing the Approach in the National Legal Field

E.A. Kravets, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

The paper analyzes the technological indicators of the best available technologies approved by regulatory legal acts. The conclusion about the potential danger of unlimited use of the best available technologies without creating additional regulatory mechanisms was made on the basis of comparison of these indicators with environmental quality standards and current legal norms in the environmental sphere.

Keywords: best available technologies (BAT), environmental quality standards, acceptable risk.


Content, Migration and Transformation of Trace Elements Zn and Cu in the System "Water-Sediments" of the Reservoirs

G.Yu. Tolkachev, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), B.I. Korzhenevskiy, Can.Sc. (Geology), the All-Russian Research Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation

The main features of the content, migration and transformation of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the system "water-sediments" are discuss. The choice of these trace elements is due to the following: Cu belongs to the highest class of hazard, with high chemical and biological activity, and Zn, being less toxic, has a high content in various ecosystems. Compounds of these elements do not destruct in natural waters, but only change the forms, which leads to changes in their migration ability, toxic properties, availability for biota and, consequently, their ecological role in water bodies.

Keywords: trace elements, sediments, forms of existence, solid phase, pore solution, contamination.


Cartography


Assessment of Urbanization of Territories Based on the Materials of Multizone Satellite Imagery

D.A. Khabarov, I.A. Khabarova, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), D.S. Valiev, Can.Sc. (Economy), the State University of Land Use Planning

The article examines the substitution of land use types in New Moscow based on the materials of multi-zone satellite imagery to assess the urbanization of the territory. The main objective of the study is to determine the area of land that was removed from agricultural production in the section of industrial (technogenic) use.

Keywords: urbanization of territories, types of land use, multi-zone space imagery.


NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY


Anniversaries


Solid Soil under the Feet (to the 75th anniversary of S.A. Shoba)

O.A. Makarov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), P.V. Krasilnikov, the Correspond.-Member, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Dr.Sc. (Biologiy), the Moscow State University, N.G. Rybalsky, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

April 21 marks the 75th anniversary of the scientist, teacher and public figure, President of the Dokuchaev Society of Soil Scientists, the Dean of the Faculty of Soil Science of the Moscow State University nam. aft. M.V. Lomonosov, Correspond.-Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) Sergey Alekseevich Schoba. Colleagues, comrades and students congratulate Sergey Alekseevich on this significant date and recall the key points in the biography of the hero of the day.


People of our Time (to the 70th anniversary of A.A. Tishkov)


In domestic geography and ecology, the event is 70 years old for the deputy director, head of the biogeography laboratory of the Institute of Geography (the Russian Academy of Sciences, RAS) Correspond.-Member of the RAS Arkady Alexandrovich Tishkov.


Ecology Begins with Definitions and Terms (on the 70th anniversary of V.V. Snakin)

N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», the Presidium of the Russian Ecological Academy, A.V. Smurov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Museum of Earth Sciences, the Moscow State University, S.A. Stepanov, Dr.Sc. (Pedagog.), the International Independent Environmental and Political University, the Presidium of the Russian Ecological Academy

The article is devoted to the scientific, scientific-educational, pedagogical and social activities of the Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Academician of the Russian Academy of Environmental Sciences Valery Viktorovich Snakin.

Keywords: ecology, terms, definitions, dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases and other cartographic works, global environmental problems, scientific periodicals.


International Cooperation


International Cooperation in the Russian Arctic: Questions on the Eve of our Country's Chairmanship in the Arctic Council

A.A. Tishkov, the Correspond.-Member, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Institute of Geography, RAS

In this article, the Chairman of the Working Group "International Scientific Initiatives in the Russian Arctic" (ISIRA) of the International Arctic Scientific Committee (IASC) of the Arctic Council, the Deputy Director of the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Memb.-Corr. RAS A.A. Tishkov analyzes the state and prospects of international scientific cooperation in the Russian Arctic on the eve of the chairmanship of the Russian Federation in the Arctic Council (2021-2023).

Keywords: Arctic, Russian Arctic, Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (RF AZ), Arctic countries, Arctic Council, international scientific cooperation, Arctic research, circumpolar projects, polar expeditions.


Human Societiy and Nature


The Experience of Managing Natural Science Internet Resources (at Soil Science Faculty of Moscow State University)

N.N. Rybalskiy, Can.Sc.(Biology), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University, V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc.(Biology), the Research Centre "Agroprognoz"

The article analyzes the process of transition from static to dynamic Internet resources. There are described the core aspects of IT-security of Internet resources. The experience of IT-projects reorganization is presented. There is given the methodology of management processes building too. The algorithm for managing Internet resources is formulated.

Keywords: soil science, natural resources, environmental protection, information technology, IT, Internet resources, website, social media, social networks, information security, IT security, information management, process organization, resource management.


About the Oddities of Statistics on Coronavirus COVID-19

M.V. Rodkin, Dr.Sc. (Phys.-Mathem.), the Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), S.V. Belov, Dr.Sc. (Geology), OOO OZGEO

The analysis of statistical data on the disease of coronavirus COVID-19 revealed a number of issues related to the accounting method, quality of testing and other factors that directly affect the choice of strategy and tactics for combating a pandemic. It is noted that today mankind is not ready for large-scale environmental and epidemiological disasters.

Keywords: statistics, epidemiological statistics, the growth of epidemics and pandemics.


Calendar of Events


II specialized exhibition "ECOLOGY. INDUSTRIAL SAFETY"


Bookshelf


Participants of the Great Patriotic War. Employees of the Faculty of Soil Science / S.A. Shoba, T.I. Khusnetdinova.


Kozlovskiy E.A. "Geology in creation and wars. To the 75th anniversary of the Great Victory."


Snakin V.V. Ecology, global natural processes and the evolution of the biosphere. Encyclopedic Dictionary.




Бюллетень «Использование и охрана природных ресурсов в России»

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