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2021 / 1

NATURE


General Problems of Nature Management


Bioresources of a Large River Basin (on the Example of the Volga river Basin)

A.G. Zibarev, Dr.Sc. (Economics), the Member-Correspondent, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), N.V. Kostina, Dr.Sc. (Biology), G.E. Kudinova, Cand. Sc. (Economics), R.S. Kuznetsova, Cand. Sc. (Biology), A.G. Rozenberg, Cand. Sc. (Biology), G.S. Rozenberg, the Member-Correspondent, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin of the RAS

The expert information system REGION is briefl y described, designed to build predictive models of changes in the parameters of biological resources of territories from environmental factors and anthropogenic impacts. On the example of a large region (the Volga river basin), a forecast of changes in primary biological productivity under conditions of global warming was carried out using the EIS REGION. Variants of infl uence on the bio-productivity of anthropogenic pollution and the level of economic development of the subjects of the region are considered.

Keywords: Volga river basin, climate change, biological productivity, expert ecological information system.


Mineral Resources


Ecological and Geocryological Conditions of the “Nezhdaninskoye” Gold Deposit (North-Eastern Yakutia)

M.M. Shatz, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), S.I. Serikov, Institute of Permafrost. P.I. Melnikov, SB RAS, Yakutsk; Igarka

The article highlights the current natural and geoeconomic conditions for the development of the Nezhdaninskoye gold-antimony ore deposit in North-Eastern Yakutia - one of the largest in Russia. It is shown that the natural conditions of the region are extremely harsh, which to a large extent constrains its development. It is noted that the development of the deposit is seriously complicated by the lack of technologies for extracting gold from concentrate in Russia and it is necessary to create special centers for its processing in the country. It was emphasized that the creation of a single center for processing complex ores and concentrates of refractory ores in Yakutia is quite realistic on the basis of the deposit.

Keywords: modern natural and geoeconomic conditions of development; technologies for extracting gold from concentrate; processing center for complex ores and refractory ore concentrates in Yakutia.


Water Resources


Assessment of the Water Quality of the Kirpichnaya River by Microbiological Indicators

A.E. Golovaneva, Can.Sc. (Biology), M.N. Koneva, N.A. Stupnikova, Can.Sc. (Biology), Kamchatka State Technical University

To indicate the processes of pollution and degradation of the aquatic environment of the river. The brick, dependent on urbanization processes, used groups of bacteria, the number of which indicates a change in water quality. The study was carried out for the fi rst time, and data were obtained showing the number of microorganisms that make up both autochthonous and allochthonous microfl ora of the watercourse. The work revealed that the water body is polluted, the river is in an unsatisfactory state in terms of the number of sanitaryindicative microorganisms.

Keywords: Kirpichnaya river, total microbial number, Escherichia coli bacteria, saprophytes, allochthonous microfl ora, autochthonous microfl ora.


Land Resources and Soils


Infl uence of Meltwater on Erosion-Accumulative Processes on Arable Land in the Central Forest-Steppe Zone of the Krasnoyarsk Territory

I.A. Golubev, Krasnoyarsk state agrarian university

Water-erosion processes on the cultivated lands of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe (the territory of Central Siberia) remain poorly studied. The article presents the results of fi eld studies of soil fl ushing from meltwater on the arable slopes of the Central zone of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe in the period 2009-2011. The structure of removal cones, factors and patterns of erosion development, the infl uence of the underlying surface features and the previous autumn soil moisture on the intensity of erosion-accumulative processes are studied.

Keywords: Erosion-accumulative processes, experimental sites, removal cone, method, amount of fl ushing, forest-steppe, autumn moisture, factors.


Forest Resources


Russia Forest Sector Development: the New Look: Part 3. Foundations of a New Forest (The end of the article. The beginning in bulletin №3 and №4, 2020)

E.A. Shvarts1, Dr. Sc. (Geograph.), I.V. Starikov2, Cand. Sc. (Economics), V.S. Kharlamov3, A.Yu. Yaroshenko4, Cand. Sc. (Biology), N.M. Shmatkov5, A.V. Kobyakov6, Cand. Sc. (Agriculture), A.V. Ptichnikov1, Cand. Sc. (Geography), F.Yu. Lukovtsev7, O.V. Tyuleneva8, R.Yu. Golunov9, Cand. Sc. (Technology), A.A. Shegolev10

1The Institute of Geography, RAS

2VNII Ecology of The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russia

3The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russia

4Greenpeace Russia

5Forest Stewardship Council of the Russia

6Mytischi Branch of Bauman Moscow State Technical University

7ANO Daurian club

8Research Center “Leader”

9Center for Special Projects and Programs

10WWF Russia

The article is focused at a principally new forest sector strategy development to be oriented fi rst of all at transition to sustainable development of the forest sector. Actual strategic management tools are described which could help achieving critical change at the Russian forest sector and increase forest management effectiveness and effi ciency through dialogue of authorities, business and science. The following questions are covered: digital transformation and access to reliable data on forests, qualifi ed labor resources, increase of products’ competitiveness and fi nancial infrastructure development. Authors provide for discussion draft indicators and landmarks to measure effectiveness of the Russian forest sector development. In the conclusion proposals are provided for organization of collaboration between stakeholders to modernize and improve forest management effectiveness based on a productive dialogue between authorities, business and science, achieving innovations driving force.

Keywords: forest sector, strategy development, forest management, use of forests, green fi nance, digital data on forests, annual allowable cut, voluntary forest certifi cation


Biodiversity


Interrelation of Forest Biotopes and Ungulates of Kuzbass

A.Yu. Prosekov1, Dr.Sc. (Technology), E.V. Boyko2

1Kemerovo State University

2The Department of Wildlife Protection of the Kuzbass

The article considers the infl uence of different levels of forest cover on the number of hunting animals in the Kemerovo region-Kuzbass. The analysis of this relationship was carried out by the correlation method. It is shown that the decrease in the level of forest cover is associated with the intensifi cation of agriculture, unfavorable climatic conditions, forest fi res, and fragmentation of the region’s forest. A stable, annual increase in the number of ungulates is revealed. A high and moderate inverse dependence of the dynamics of the ungulate population on the infl uence of the level of forest cover in the hunting grounds of different regions was revealed. It is established that the increase in the number of ungulates negatively affects the greening of certain territories.

Keywords: rational use of natural resources, forest cover, Kuzbass, biodiversity, biological resources, regional forests, hunting animals, population dynamics, quantitative analysis.


Water Biological Resources


Evaluation of the Water Quality of the Main Water Body of the SPNA «Dolina of the River Volgusha and Paramonovsky Ravine» in Macrophytes

N.V. Kuznetsova1, Can.Sc. (Biology), A.I. Ivanova1, G.A. Lazareva2, Can.Sc. (Biology)

1Dmitrov Fish-industry Technological Institute (Branch) of ASTU

2Dubna State University

The paper deals with results of Volgusha water quality assessment. The evaluation of pollution intensity was based on saprobiotic analysis by means of pollution indicator organism. Additionally, the work is devoted to aquatic vegetation characteristic, fl oristic composition of macrophytes and foliage cover.

Keywords: macrophytes, indicator species, saprobity, helophytes, immersed hydrophytes, hydrophytes with fl oating leaves.


Climatic Resources

Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation in the Forest Fund of the Central Federal District

A.A. Trunov, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology named after academician Yu.A. Israel Roshydromet

Based on the use of calculated monitoring methods for the period from 2009 to 2019. estimated greenhouse gas emissions during the conversion of forest lands to settlement lands (СО2, CH4, N2O) in the Central Federal District. The results of the study showed that since 2009 the area of deforestation and their transfer to other categories of land use in the Central Federal District amounted to 7.5 thousand hectares, of which the area of drained organic soils is estimated at 0.9 thousand hectares. The corresponding greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation for the period under review amounted to 7.3 million tons of CO2 eq. with an average annual emission of 0.6 million tons of CO2 year-1. The largest contributors to total losses are changes in soil carbon stocks (63%) and biomass carbon losses (28%).

Keywords: deforestation, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, forest fund, biomass, litter, debris, soil, organogenic soils.


Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas


Prospects for the Protection of the Slope Relief of the Oka River Valley in the Ryazan Region

A.Yu. Vorobyov, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), Ryazan State University named after S.A. Yesenina

In the article discusses the prospects for updating the geological component in the structure of regional protected areas on the indigenous sides of the Oka river valley in the Ryazan region. The necessity of taking into account them high landslide morphodynamics, climatic change and complex stratigraphy is substantiated. We are proposed the research directions at the junction of geomorphology and paleogeography for a section of the valley slope near the Vakino village and project development of a new natural monument near the Incino village.

Keywords: landslide, river valley, Oka river, Ryazan district, natural monument, climate dynamics, sediment stratigraphy.


Environmental Protection


The Effect of Car Driving Resistances on the Ecology

E.A. Rahimov, Cand. Sc. (Technology), the Institute of Geography named after acad. H. Aliyev, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences

Automobile transport is the greatest generator of carbon dioxide that infl uences the greenhouse effect to large extent. The quantity of consumed fuel infl uences the ecology, the state of health of people along with the fi nancial expenses that are related to the operation of vehicles. The paper is devoted to the problems of driving resistances that infl uence an automobile. Each automobile breaks driving resistances in the course of driving. These resistances are air resistance, acceleration resistance, rolling resistance and gradient resistance. The motor should carry out particular work for the purpose of breaking the driving resistances. A rise in the value of some resistances leads to a rise in the work required for its breaking. For such work it is essential to expend specifi c amount of fuel and the outcome is visible in the shape of detrimental emissions. The paper characterises the mechanism of development of certain driving resistances and factors that infl uence them.

Keywords: automobile transport, environment, driving resistance, emissions, fuel consumption, pollution.


Cartography


Retrospective Analysis and Problems of Digital Cartography

V.V. Kurteev, Council for the Study of the Productive Forces of the AAFT of the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia

The results of integration digital technologies into creation of general maps and natural-resource maps were analyzed. Typical mistakes were considered, was made an attempt to determine reasons of appearing unacceptable mistakes, were offered ways and methods to avoid them.

Keywords: cartography, geoinformatics, supervised mapping.


NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY


Anniversaries


To the 100th Anniversary of the GOELRO Plan

E.V. Muravieva, N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), The National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

A hundred years ago, on December 22, 1920, the VIII All-Russian Congress of Soviets adopted the historic plan of GOELRO - the State Commission for the Electrifi cation of Russia, which has no analogues in world economic, scientifi c and technical practice and made it possible to quickly bring the country into the ranks of the most developed countries in the world. The article gives the history of the creation and implementation of the GOELRO plan.

Keywords: GOELRO plan, energy, hydroelectric power plants, territorial planning.


To the 90th Anniversary of prof. Nikolai Fedorovich Reimers

A.V. Kaverin, Dr.Sc. (Agriculture), Moscow State University named after N.P. Ogareva

The article presents offi cial and unoffi cial information about Nikolai Fedorovich Reimers – an outstanding Russian ecologist, the author of a number of major monographs and several hundred scientifi c and popular scientifi c articles on various branches of ecology.

Keywords: economic systems, nature conservation, zoological research, optimization of nature management, natural protected areas, theoretical foundations of agroecology, economology.


To the 35th Anniversary of the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Monitoring Ionizing Radiation in the Environment

S.M. Vakulovskiy1, Dr.Sc. (Technology), V.A. Vorobyev2, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Mathemat.),

1RPA “TYPHOON” of Roshydromet

2The Russian Ecological Academy

Nuclear weapons tests and periodic accidents at numerous nuclear cycle facilities have led to radioactive contamination of large areas of the globe. For the radiation safety of fl ights in the stratosphere and space, it became necessary to control and quickly forecast the ionizing radiation of space radiation. In the USSR, these tasks were effectively solved by the Institute of Applied Geophysics, the Institute of Global Climate and Ecology and the NGO Typhoon.

Keywords: Ionizing radiation in the atmosphere, radioactive contamination of territories, airborne gamma survey.


Human Societiy and Nature


Fires as a Social and Environmental Threat in the Views of Students in the South of Russia

V.V. Diakova1, Cand.Sc. (Sociology), E.V. Kargapolova2, Dr.Sc. (Sociology), N.V. Dulina3, Dr.Sc. (Sociology)

1Astrakhan State Technical University

2Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

3Volgograd State University

The article uses the results of a specifi c sociological study of the Russian Society of Sociologists, conducted in 2017 among students of Russian higher educational institutions. Offi cial statistics on the causes of fi res, damage and destruction of woodlands in the Volgograd and Astrakhan regions, results of content analysis of the news feed, and offi cial information about the area of woodlands are provided. The importance of further study of the research question for understanding the process of formation and development of ecological consciousness is proved.

Keywords: fi res, sociology of fi re safety, environmental threat, environmental problem, environmental situation, causes of fi res, sociological research, student survey, environmental awareness.


Bookshelf


A New Synthesis of Ecological Knowledge

N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), NIA-Priroda

The article is devoted to the new encyclopedic dictionary, prof. V.V. Snakin “Ecology, global natural processes and the evolution of the biosphere” (2020), published under the stamp of the Lomonosv Moscow State University and the Institute for Fundamental Problems of Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences under the project of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The author of the dictionary - Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Valery V. Snakin - has many years of experience in leading research organizations in Russia on the problems of nature conservation, nature management, studying the mechanisms of natural processes, evolution, assessing and mapping the ecological situation. The reviewer emphasizes the fundamental nature of the author’s approach during the preparation of the dictionary articles, a versatile and balanced view of global environmental problems. The reviewed edition should undoubtedly become an important element of modern environmental education.

Keywords: Biosphere evolution, anthropogenic impact, global natural processes, ecological dictionary.


Our View on the Eco-Space

S.G. Kharchenko, Dr.Sc. (Phys.-Mathemat.), P.A. Dokukin, Cand. Sc. (Technology), D.E. Kucher, Cand. Sc. (Technology), Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

The article describes, characterizes and evaluates the monograph of Rosenberg G. S. et al. “Space of eco-journals”. The advantages of this work and the ways it can be useful for masters, postgraduates and other young research workes are noted. The importance and uniqueness of this work is emphasized.

Keywords: Rosenberg G. S., comparative analysis, systematization, space of eco-journals, scientometric indicators, academic ethics

Бюллетень «Использование и охрана природных ресурсов в России»

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