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2020 / 1

NATURE

 

General Problems of Nature Management

 

Transport and Energy Corridor with Japan: from Geostrategy and Geopolitics to the Laws of the Future Development of Russia in the Context of Globalization and Sanction

M.Ch. Zalikhanov, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Alpine Geophysical Institute (c. Nalchik), A.Kh. Atabiev, Dr.Sc. (Economy), the Academician, the Russian Academy of Nature Sciences

The problems and prospects of strategic cooperation with Japan on joint development of resources of the Far East and Siberia for the purpose of economic development of Russia are considered. The article substantiates the «Eurasian model of Russia's development» through strategic partnership with Japan, as a powerful platform, called in Japan «Putin's» project for the construction of a land-free transport and energy corridor of Russia with Japan through Sakhalin Island. The comparison of this project with the economic opportunities of the New Silk Road of China is given. The authors have proposed a tunnel version of a poly-highway that joints a high-speed railway, combined with a highway, power bridge and fiber-optic communication lines. Within the framework of this concept, the expediency of laying an oil and gas pipeline to Japan is also considered.

Keywords: strategic partnership, transport and energy corridor, transit potential, sustainable development of the region, development of the resource base.

 

Mineral Resources

 

Should Become Mineral a Hydrogen?

S.V. Belov, Dr.Sc. (Geology), the Academician, the Russian Academy of Nature Sciences

In connection with the growing development of hydrogen energy, the perspective of discovery industrial deposits of endogenous hydrogen in the lithosphere are being considered. It is indicated that it is necessary to include hydrogen in the Russian register of minerals and to carry out advanced scientific investigations in this direction. In the context of the development of hydrogen energy, and low oil prices, the feasibility of developing oil and gas prospecting on the Russian Arctic shelf in the short term is discussed.

Keywords: hydrogen energy, hydrogen deposits, oil, gas, Russian arctic shelf.

 

Water Resources

 

Transformation of the Irrigated Sector of the Agro-Industrial Complex of Russia During the Post-Soviet Period

A.P. Demin, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Water Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

It is shown that in conditions when about 80% of the country's agricultural land is located in the zone of risky farming with insufficient and unstable moisture, increasing productivity and sustainable development of agriculture is impossible without carrying out comprehensive land reclamation. It was revealed that from 1990 to 2016 the area of irrigated land in the country decreased from 6.2 to 4.7 million hectares, and the areas under valuable crops decreased at the highest rates. The transformation of the ameliorative state of irrigated agricultural land by the level of groundwater and soil salinization is estimated. It has been shown that in just a few years, the yield of vegetables, sugar beet, corn decreased by half, and fodder yield – by 2.3 times, since the amount of applied fertilizers decreased by 6-8 times, the quality of seed material and fertility of reclaimed land sharply decreased, it significantly deteriorated technical condition of irrigation systems. Of the total irrigated area in 2016, 785 thousand hectares (17%) were not used in agricultural production, mainly due to salinization and flooding. It is characteristic that in 1990 only 3.7% of irrigated lands were not used.

Keywords: Ameliorative condition of irrigated lands, federal districts, irrigated lands productivity, technical condition of irrigation systems, salinization and flooding, not watered land area.

 

Regional Approach to the Estimation of the Process for Forming Drain at the Drainage of Small Rivers of the Republic of Tatarstan

A.T. Gorshkova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), O.N. Urbanova, Y.V. Gorbunova, the Research Institute for Problems of Ecology and Mineral Wealth Use, the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences

For an objective assessment of changes in river flow in the basin of the small river Aktai, hydrographs of the phases of the hydrological regime of the river were analyzed. It's formation must be influenced by various physiographic factors of the water withdrawal. It was shown that changes in perennial fluctuations in the runoff of the Aktai river occurred within their natural variability.

Keywords: river runoff, hydrograph, stock-forming complexes, phases of the hydrological regime.

 

Land Resources and Soils

From Rational Land Use to Soil Neutrality

V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Research Centre «Agroprognoz», N.N. Rybalskiy, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article shows the Rational Land Use paradigm transformation into the concept of «soil neutrality» (also called «Land Degradation Neutrality» – LDN). There is proposed an alternative designation for the LDN term – «soil neutrality». The concept of soil neutrality and its historical path is analyzed too. There are formulated seven theses of soil neutrality; studied the tasks and methodology of soil neutrality. The methodology of achieving soil neutrality is assessed in comparison with existing Russian approaches.

Keywords: rational land use, soil neutrality, soil science, Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN), soil health, soil assessment, soil degradation, soil restoration, erosion, Dokuchaev, database, monitoring, sustainable development, food security, soil protection.

 

Development of an Integrated Data Bank for Greening Land Use and Expertise of Land Management Materials

S.S. Ogorodnikov, A.S. Yakovlev, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University, A.P. Sizov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography

The article considers the prerequisites for the creation of an integrated data bank for the organization of effective management in the field of environmental protection and land use. In particular, the design Bureau is designed to provide and organize the system of planning and land management activities, environmental and land management expertise, as well as the implementation of environmental monitoring and control.

Keywords: Integrated data bank, Unified state register of soil resources of Russia, natural resource cadastre, environmental regulation, ecological and land management expertise.

 

Forest Resources

Aspects of Development of the Natural Structure of the Metropolis in Siberia (on the example of Krasnoyarsk)

A.S. Volkova, S.L. Shevelyov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the Siberian State University of Science and Technology

The article considers the territorial development of the natural base on the example of the natural zone of the city of Krasnoyarsk and its vulnerable territories are presented. The features of the state of individual elements of the natural framework of the city, as well as the assessment of their effectiveness in accordance with the current environmental situation in the last decade, are established. The categories of green spaces in the inner-city space, as well as their structure of organization and management, are defined too. There are presenting main ecological factors influencing the degree of anthropogenic load on natural stands forming forests of green zones. Also specific indicators on the degree of anthropogenic load on the existing green infrastructure of the city and the structure of industrial pollution are presented. Planning and engineering measures for the development and preservation of potentially promising natural areas as six vectors of territory development are describing. There are highlighted main aspects of sustainable development of green areas in an urban environment. A brief methodology for the formation of a viable natural framework is formulated on the example of the city of Krasnoyarsk, the basis of which, subject to additional research, will contribute to achieving the balance of urban areas as a whole.

Keywords: urban natural framework, green zone, anthropogenic landscape, technogenic factor, dynamics of wood stands, environmental protection function, sanitary and hygienic norms.

 

Biodiversity

 

Biological Diversity and Natural Ecosystems as a Resource of Environmental Stability

N.A. Sobolev, Can.Sc (Geograph.), the Institute of Geography, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The use of biological diversity to assess the ability of ecosystems to self-regulation is considered. Biodiversity is defined as a property of living systems. There are introduced resource and competitive regulations in biota communities. The definitions of chorological classes, full biota, and level of biodiversity are specified. The use of the ecological diversity of rare species as an indicator of the natural biodiversity is justified; a criterion for the full biota is formulated too. A map of the largest natural massifs in Russia is given. It is proposed to make natural areas an integrated management object and increase the role of biogeography in territorial planning.

Keywords: natural biodiversity, natural ecological systems, biota communities, sustainability, self-regulation, vulnerable species, stenotopic species, rare species, chorological classes, natural backbone, rural landscape, urban landscape, territorial conservation, actual biogeography.

 

Water Biological Resources

 

On the Conservation of Biological Resources, the Protection of the Baltic Sea Environment and Role of Russian Federal Agency for Fisheries

A.P. Pedchenko, V.A. Belyaev, the Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography

This article explains the priority task is the organization of coordinated work of the Baltic region to protect the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea and its gulfs. Also the article provides an overview of the activities of scientific institutions of Russian Fisheries Agency (Rosrybolovstvo) since the early 2000s for the conservation of fish stocks and their habitat in the Baltic Sea and its bays.

Keywords: biological resources, commercial catch of fish, international cooperation, Baltic Sea, HELKOM.

 

Climatic Resources

 

Bioclimatic Conditions at the Crimean Peninsula Resorts: Diagnosis and Forecast

A.S. Lubkov, A.A. Stefanovich, E.N. Voskresenskaya, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), E.V. Vyshkvarkova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems (c. Sevastopol)

The monthly intra-annual changes of bioclimatic index (equivalent effective temperature) at several Crimean resorts are considered. The possibility of climate prediction of index values with a lead time of two to six months using a model based on the method of artificial neural networks have been studied. The indices of teleconnection climatic signals are used as predictors. The results of model verification for each month showed a quite satisfactory level, especially for the Yalta region.

Keywords: bioclimatic indices, forecast, neural networks, recreation, recreational comfort level, Crimean peninsula.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

 

The System of Indicators for Regional Monitoring of Objects of Specially Protected Natural Territories of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug –Ugra for Various Environmental Components

O.V. Bogdanova, Can.Sc. (Economy), V.M. Okmyanskaya, the Tyumen Industrial University, A.P. Sizov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography

The article analyzes the system of regional monitoring of specially protected natural areas of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra. A system of indicators for monitoring unique natural complexes of regional significance of the Autonomous Okrug is proposed.

Keywords: specially protected natural territories, unified system of state environmental regional monitoring, system of indicators.

 

Environmental Protection

 

Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Indicators of Water of Karmanovskoe Reservoir

R.R. Gazetdinov, Can.Sc. (Cemistry), R.M. Shainurova, the Bashkir State University (branch in c. Birsk)

The article gives an organoleptic assessment of water quality of the Karmanovsky reservoir for 2018-2019 and presents the results of studies of hardness, alkalinity, oxidability, specific electrical conductivity, salinity, suspended solids and ionic composition, content of oil products. The authors emphasize that the numerical values of indicators of water quality in general do not change during the year. Organoleptic characteristics are within normal limits. The content of oil products and the ionic composition do not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations, with the exception of increased iron content (up to 2.3 MPC) and copper (up to 7.7 MPC) practically during the entire analyzed period. No critical technogenic and anthropogenic impact on the reservoir was found.

Keywords: physical and chemical indicators, water sample, assessment of anthropogenic influence, Karmanovskaya State District Power Station, cooling pond (water object).

 

Solid Waste Landfill «Salaryevo» as a Possible Source of Mycotoxin Contamination

L.V. Mosina, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), J.A. Zhandarova, the Russian State Agricultural University-Moscow Agricultural Academy nam.by K.A. Timiryazev

The performed studies have established changes in the mycological composition and nature of metabolic processes in the soil of the landfill «Salarievo», causing the formation of mycotoxins, which further worsens the environmental condition of the surrounding area and adversely affects human health.

Keywords: mycotoxin, agricultural crops, municipal solid waste landfills.

 

Cartography

 

Distribution of Rare and Threatened Lichen Species in the Russian Federation

A.A. Prisyazhnaya, Can. Sc. (Biology), V.R. Khrisanov, Can. Sc. (Geograph.), S.A. Kruglova, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems (RAS), V.V. Snakin, Dr. Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems (RAS)

There is analysis of the lists of lichen species included in the national and regional Red Data Books of the Russian Federation. A map is presented showing the distribution of the number of lichen species protected at the regional level in the Russian. It was found that in 11 subjects of Russian Federation lichens were not included in the Red Data Books. The largest number of species is listed in the Red Books of the Republics of Karelia and Komi. The species diversity of all lichens within the boundaries of biomes was estimated. It is shown that the highest species diversity of lichens is in the North-Western part of Russia, in the Northern Urals and the North Caucasus, and the lowest - in desert-steppe biomes. The problems of the compilation of red lists of lichens are considered.

Keywords: lichens, species, diversity, Red Data Books, lists of rare and endangered species.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

Anniversaries

 

To the 200th Anniversary of the Discovery of Antarctica by Russian Navigators

N.G. Rybalsky, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), E.V. Muravieva, the National Information Agency «Nature Resources» (NIA-Priroda)

The article presents a brief 200-year history of the discovery of Antarctica by Russian navigators under the leadership of F.F. Bellingshausen and M.P. Lazarev and its subsequent study by Russian polar explorers in the framework of Antarctic expeditions. There is given information on the start of the Year of Antarctica.

Keywords: discovery of Antarctica, F.F. Bellingshausen, M.P. Lazarev, M.M. Somov, A.F. Treshnikov, Antarctic expeditions, Russian Antarctic expeditions (RAE), Year of Antarctica.

 

International Cooperation

 

New Inland Waterway of the Union State of Belarus and Russia

Yu.G. Bogomolov, Can.Sc. (Geology), S. M. Golubev, Can.Sc. (Geology), V.F. Ladygin

The All-Russian Public Organization «The Russian Union of Hydrogeologists» (RosGidroGeo)

It is proposed to build a navigable waterway in the shortest direction between the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation – in the direction of rivers Pripyat-Dnepr-Ugra-Oka in order to create in the future a common inland water transport system in Europe with the shortest access to the Mediterranean, Baltic, White, Caspian, Black and Azov seas.

Keywords: waterways, shipping, waterways, inland waterways, river transport, hydraulic structures, shipping lock, reservoir, culverts, pumping stations.

 

Calendar of Events

II Specialized Exhibition «ECOLOGY. INDUSTRIAL SAFETY»

 

Bookshelf

Specially Protected Natural Territories of Regional and Local Significance of the Russian Federation (handbook) in 2 volumes.

 

 

 

Бюллетень «Использование и охрана природных ресурсов в России»

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