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2019 / 4

Аннотации на англ. языке №4 2019

 

NATURE

 

Mineral Resources

 

Cryoecological Conditions of the Tabornoe Gold Deposit (South-West Yakutia)

M.M. Shatz, Can.Sc.(Geograph.), the Institute of Permafrost (c. Yakutsk), the Siberian Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences

The article describes the complex of natural conditions of the Tabornoye large-scale native gold deposit located in the Olekminsky district of south-western Yakutia. The history and structure of the gold mining industry of the Republic of Yakutia, the technology of the development of the deposit, including attracting new approaches. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying and solving cryoecological problems of environmental impacts during field development under conditions of widespread development of powerful permafrost strata of rocks. A set of conditions has been established for the environmentally sound application of heap leaching technology for gold.

Keywords: natural conditions of Tabornoye native gold deposit, cryoecological problems, heap leaching technology, environmental impacts.

 

Water Resources

 

Method of Creating Impervious Curtains by Filtering Windows for Removing Clean Water from a Local Pollution Spot

A.V. Ishchenko A.V., Dr.Sc.(Engeer.), the Novocherkassk Engineering Meliorative Institute (the Donskoi State Agrarian University), V.V. Tekalovskaya, the Novocherkassk Engineering Meliorative Institute (the Donskoi State Agrarian University), the Russian Information-Analytic and Water Economy Centre, V.K. Klevtsova, the Russian Information-Analytic and Water Economy Centre

In the article schemes of spreading a polluted flow under the leakage of oil and oil products of its accidental spills from a pollution sources to the «wall in the ground» by filtering windows are given. Principal filtering and hydraulic characteristics of windows optimal placement with sorbtioning and filtering materials to diverse a tape of minimum pollution discharge from the oil flow with the help of flow net are defined.

Keywords: ground water, oil products, infiltration, hydraulic characteristics.

 

Design of a Decision Support System for Water Discharge Management over a River Basin System

O.A. Ivanova, the Department of Ecology and Industrial Safety, the Bauman Moscow State Technical University

The article presents the development of a decision support system – an operational advisory expert system for optimal water discharge management over complex system of hydraulic structures. Based on the review of existing software and algorithmic software in this area, the article deals with the problems of managing hydraulic structures. It is proposed to use an auxiliary information system for the operator when managing hydraulic systems – a promising operational advising expert system. This system is based on a dynamic expert system with predictive models that are proposed to be built by self-organisation algorithm.

Keywords: control (management) of hydraulic systems, dynamic expert system, self-organisation algorithm, water discharge.

 

Land Resources and Soils

 

Synergetic Method of Soil Cognition

V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc.(Biology), the Research Centre «Agroprognoz», N.N. Rybalsky, Can.Sc.(Biology), the Soil Geography Department, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article describes the history and current level of soil science formalisation and highlights the relevance of soil science and synergetics scientific synthesis goal to create new types of models – synergetic models. The structure of soil, its geometry and topology are forming the basis for the development of the synergetic model. Also there are given starting points for modeling – hypotheses about the soil, control parameters, conditions, environment and soil formation forces.

Keywords: soil, soil science, synergetics, soil model, soil structure, dissipative structures, soil torus, formalisation, geometry, topology, digital soil model, neural networks, general soil model.

 

Soil Indicators in Econometric Dynamic Models of Agricultural Development Based on the Cobb-Douglas Function

O.A. Makarov, Dr.Sc.(Biology), D.R. Abdulkhanova, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University, A.S. Strokov, Can.Sc. (Economy), the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, E.V. Tsvetnov, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Eurasian Center for Food Security (the Agricultural Center), E.N. Kubarev, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Educational and Experimental Soil-Ecological Center, the Moscow State University

There is shown the relevance of the development of dynamic models of agricultural development based on the modified Cobb-Douglas production function of the type «economic indicators-soil indicators» – «climate indicators» in a changing climate and unbalanced farming systems. The problems of collection of homogeneous (comparable with each other) soil indicators for several decades are considered. The databases of economic, soil and climatic data on the Belgorod and Lipetsk regions for the period 1995-2017 are presented, where some soil indicators (agrochemical properties) are given in dynamics, and others (indicators of erosion) are the results of one-time measurements.

Keywords: crop yield, econometric models, agrochemical indicators, soil and land degradation. 109

 

Forest Resources

 

Features of Natural Forest Restoration in Conditions of the Monument of Nature «Jabyk-Karagay Pinery»

N.I. Starodubceva, Can.Sс.(Agricult.), A.E. Morozov, Can.Sс.(Agricult.), the Institute of Forest and Environmental Management, the Ural State Forest Engineering University

There are done results of the study of natural reforestation under canopy of pine stands and forest stands in the conditions of the nature monument «Jabyk-Karagay Pinery». The location of the pinery on the southern boundary of forest distribution in the steppe part of the Chelyabinsk region causes extreme growing conditions for woody vegetation. The processes of natural reforestation which are caused by pine proceed quite successfully in the initial stages as under the canopy of stands, so in the redines (thinning forest plots). With ages the amount of trustworthy undergrowth is significantly reduced due to adverse soil and climatic factors. The success of natural reforestation depends on the type of forest. The least favorable conditions are observed in the pine-grass cereal-grass meadow. Also there are done recommendations for increasing the efficiency of natural reforestation in the conditions of the Jabyk-Karagay pinery.

Keywords: natural reforestation, undergrowth, self-seeding, forest types, natural and artificial plantations, wedges, living ground cover, phytomass.

 

Biodiversity

 

Rare Species of the Genus Primula L. by Eastern Caucasus

R.A. Murtazaliev, Can.Sc.(Biology), Z.A. Guseynova, Can.Sc.(Biology), the Mountain Botanical Garden (c. Makhachkala), the Dagestan Federal Research Center, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The distribution and state of populations of three endemic species of the genus Primula L. of the Eastern Caucasus were studied. Characteristics of their habitats and recommendations for the conservation of species are given, limiting factors are determined. There were identified 2 new locations for P. juliae, 6 for P. farinifolia and 2 for P. luteola. All three studied species are characterized by narrow ecological specialization – growth on wet rocks. Primula luteola and P. farinifolia are widespread and their populations are relatively stable. For Primula juliae there are several populations that are in critical condition.

Keywords: Eastern Caucasus, endemics, populations status, Primula juliae, Primula farinifolia, Primula luteola.

 

Climatic Resources

 

The Creation the Radiation Service for Global Monitoring of Cosmic Radiation in Near-Earth Space and the Stratosphere

V.A. Vorobyev, Can.Sc.(Physic.-Mathemat.), the Corresponding Member, the Russian Ecological Academy

In 1968, for the first time, a radiometric radiosonde with the reception of telemetric information by the standard apparatus of the aerological network of the stations of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology was launched. The creation of a stratospheric subsystem of the Radiation Service for the global monitoring of cosmic radiation was initiated in the USSR. In 1969, the «Meteor» satellite was launched with radiometric equipment, which in turn led to the creation of a space subsystem of the Radiation Service. In 1973, as a result of effective work of the stratospheric and space subsystem, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR formally established the Service for Monitoring and Forecasting of the Radiation Situation in the Near-Earth Space and the Stratosphere (SCPRO).

Keywords: radiation service, cosmic radiation, «Meteor» satellite, radiometric radiozonde.

 

Problems of ISS (International Space Station) Disposal

V.V. Alpatov, Can.Sc.(Engineer.), I.F. Krestnikov, the member of the Tsiolkovsky Academy, the Institute of Applied Geophysics, the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Rosgidromet)

«Space debris» problem associated with the safety of disposal (removal from orbit/reentry) of large space objects is considered. Examples both uncontrolled falls and controlled space stations descents from orbit are given too. The importance of the problem is caused by a sharp increasing (significant increase) of space objects mass.

Keywords: near-earth space, near-earth space pollution, rocket and space technology, spacecraft, space station, «space debris», utilization, solar activity.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

 

Features of Formation of the Geographical Framework for the Development of Tourism in Specially Protected Areas

Y.N. Voronina, the State Museum-reserve of S. A. Yesenin

The article analyses the spatial features of the organisation of tourism in specially protected areas, contributing to the rational use of recreational resources and the regulation of anthropogenic load. The structural elements of the geographical framework of the territories, which include point and linear elements of tourist infrastructure, are highlighted. The dynamics of the frame formation is shown and its quantitative and qualitative indicators are given too.

Keywords: geographical framework, specially protected area, tourism, rational use, recreational resources, point element, linear element, anthropogenic load, recreational capacity.

 

Environmental Protection

 

Ecological Problems of Animal Husbandry (on the example of large poultry farms)

N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc.(Biology), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University, E.V. Muravyova, the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», T.N. Bolysheva, Can.Sc.(Biology), A.S. Gorlenko, Can.Sc.(Biology), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University, O.V. Sheveleva, Can.Sc.(Geograph.), the Industry portal «GofroExpert», A.K. Veselov, Can.Sc.(Juridic.), the Self-regulatory organization «Association of Waste Recycling Entrepreneurs», V.A. Brinikh, the Adyghe Republican Branch of the Russian Society for the Conservation of Nature (VOOP)

The article analyses the main environmental problems of industrial poultry farming. The analysis of regulatory documents in the field of livestock waste management is given. Also there are given concrete examples of compliance with legislation in the field of poultry waste management. On the example of Inzhavinsky district – «Tambov Switzerland», an analysis of violations of the environmental and sanitary-veterinary legislation by a specific large poultry farm is done. There are shown ways out of this situation.

Keywords: livestock waste, chicken manure, «fresh» and «noble» manure, environmental danger of «fresh» manure, disinfection of manure, disposal, organic fertilizers.

 

Pollution of the Klyazma River Sediments by Heavy Metals

B.I. Korzhenevskiy, Can.Sc. (Geology), G.Yu. Tolkachev, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), N.V. Kolomiytsev, Can.Sc. (Geology), the All-Russian Research Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation

The ranking of the territory is carried out the Klyazma River basin and the results of studies on the site from the Pirogov reservoir to the village of Orgtrud – within the settlement and urban agglomerations and tributaries of the Klyazma River are considered. The results of studies of contamination of the sediments by heavy metals and arsenic, estimated by igeo-classes – contamination of the sorbent fraction (less than 0.020 mm). The main polluting elements are zinc and lead, the anthropogenic load of which is estimated from moderately dangerous to strong. There are a considerable number of sources of pollution, but it is not necessary to speak about excessively dangerous loading on water objects, except some points.

Keywords: Klyazma River, sediments, heavy metals, technogenic pressure, igeo-classes, pollution.

 

The Ecological State of the Black Sea Coastal Waters in the Region of Sevastopol

A.I. Paramonov, the Moscow State University, the Institute of Problems of Ecology and Evolution (RAS), A.A. Poromov, D.A. Khundzhua, the Moscow State University , E.V. Fedoseeva, the Russian Research Medical University nam. N.I. Pirogov, I.I. Rudneva, V.G. Shayda, the Institute of the Biology of the Southern Seas (RAS)

Water quality of Sevastopol and Quarantine Bays of the Black Sea, the coastal zone of Sevastopol (Republic of Crimea) was investigated to assess of water physicochemical parameters, relative content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by spectrophotometric analysis, and assessment water toxicity by bioassay methods using Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Artemia salina L. The results obtained at different test sites show conflicting data on the toxicity of water in the studied water area, while chemical analysis does not indicate excess of MPC for elements. We can assume the influence of organic substances on the manifestation of the ecotoxicological properties of sea water.

Keywords: Black Sea, water analysis, metals, dissolved organic matter, bioassay, toxicity.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

Anniversaries

 

The 20th Anniversary of the Cadastral Valuation of Land in Russia – the Main Problems and Difficulties

P.M. Sapozhnikov, Dr.Sc.(Agricult.), N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc.(Biology), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

There is given analysis of the methodology of cadastral valuation of agricultural land in modern legislation. The main difficulties and problems in determining the cadastral value are shown and ways to solve the identified problems are proposed too.

Keywords: agricultural land, methodology of cadastral valuation of agricultural land, the main methodological and technological problems.

 

International Cooperation

 

Results of the Madrid Climate Summit

A.O. Kokorin, Can.Sc. (Phisic.-Mathemat.), the World Wide Fund for Nature

The article presents the summary of the 25th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was held in Madrid from December 2-15, 2019.

Keywords: climate change, Paris Agreement, UNFCCC, Climate Summit.

 

Calendar of Events

 

Third All-Russian Conference «Soil and Land Resources: State, Assessment, Use» on the Centenary of the Birth of V.M. Friedland

V.A. Isaev, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), I.N. Lyubimova, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the Soil Institute nam. V.V. Dokuchaev, Dokuchaev Soil Science Society

 

Bookshelf

State report «On the state and use of water resources of the Russian Federation in 2018». – M .: NIA-Priroda, 2019 . – 290 p.


Бюллетень

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