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2019 / 3

NATURE

Common Problems of Nature Management

Permafrost Strata of the Altai-Sayan Mountain Country

M.N. Zheleznyak, Dr.Sc. (Geology), M.M. Shatz, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), S.I. Serikov, Yu.B. Skachkov, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), R.G. Sysolyatin, the Institute of Permafrost, the Siberian Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The article discusses the patterns of change in one of the main components of the natural environment – permafrost strata. By the example of the Altai-Sayan mountain country, according to the results of many years of geocryological research (including field and office), the role of individual natural factors in the formation of spatial inhomogeneities of permafrost conditions is traced. It is shown that the conditions of heat and moisture exchange of rocks with the external environment within the Altai-Sayan mountain country vary not only according to the laws of altitudinal zoning, but also meridional sector, i.e. from west to east. This determines the successive alternation of altitudinal zones of seasonal freezing of rocks and permafrost rocks, which have an island, intermittent, and continuous distribution. The pattern of latitudinal zonality, in connection with the diversity of the orography of the region, is less pronounced.

Keywords: Altai-Sayan mountain country, permafrost strata, spatial regularity, variability of natural phenomena, latitudinal zonal­ity, meridional sector, altitudinal zonation, propagation pattern of permafrost strata, rock temperature.

 

Mineral Resources

Evaluating the Filtration Properties and Capacity of Low Permeable Sediments of the Bed of Sludge and Tail Storages on Mining Enterprises

I.A. Lyamin, the Perm State National Research University

Information on 500 archival engineering-geological wells and more than 1500 results of determining the physical, mechanical and filtration properties of soils were used. The power of weakly permeable deposits, which are a natural screen in the bed of the sludge and tail storages was estimated. Based on the results of the analysis of archival materials, maps of the capacities of low-permeable deposits are constructed and the physical, mechanical and filtration properties of the deposits are analyzed. There is determined correlation between the effective particle diameter and filtration parameters of sediments.

Keywords: tailings, low permeable sediments, filtration properties, infiltration, design, effective diameter of soil particles.

 

Water Resources

Change in the Position of Pressureless Groundwater in the Natural Ecosystems of the Northern Moscow Region

J.V. Kuzmina, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), S.V. Chernorutsky, the Institute of Water Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), T.Yu. Karimova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Ecology and Evolution nam. after A.N. Severtsov, RAS, S.E. Treshkin, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the Russian Federation

The analysis is given of the change in the position of non-pressure (surface) water according to the results of many years of moni­toring of natural terrestrial ecosystems in river valleys and adjacent plains for the southern taiga zone in the Upper Volga basin of the Northern Moscow Region. Based on the data from 30 model sections for the main landforms, reliable trends in the groundwater level (GWL) change for undisturbed and disturbed as a result of the hydrotechnical impact of the territories were revealed. It was found that in the region of GWL research in the summer low water season on average from 2009 to 2018 climbed 1 m. The GWL rise is fully associ­ated with natural climatic and hydrological reasons. Hydrotechnical effects (low-pressure dams and small reservoirs) during the modern period of humid warming in the lower downstream concretes of the dams exacerbate the situation at the levels of low floodplains and improve the condition of ecosystems in the middle and upper floodplains. Irrigation and drainage impact, on the one hand, reduces the trend of increasing GWL, and on the other hand, contributes to logging of the territory due to a decrease in the amplitude of fluctuations of long-term low-water GWL .

Keywords: groundwater level, trend of low-water groundwater level, monitoring of ecosystems, climate change, southern taiga zone, «Juravlinay rodina» (Crane Homeland) reserve.

 

Land Resources and Soils

Overview of Models in Soil Science and the Concept of «Soil-Space»

N.N. Rybalskiy, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Senior Researcher, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University, V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Research Centre «Agroprognoz»

The article provides an overview of the model representations’ development in soil science. There are reviewed the types of soil models. The general appearance of models and their classification relevant to soil science are studied. Functional-analytical and spatial (geometrically-topological) models are highlighted. There are introduced the concept of «soil-space». Provided the analysis of spatial models. Formulated the possibility of creating a digital soil model.

Keywords: soil, soil science, soil models, soil formula, soil structure, mathematical modeling, formalization, geometry, topology, synergetics, soil-space, soil-expanse, digital soil model.

 

Background and Comparative Analysis of Changes in the Environment-Forming Potential of the Tyumen Region as a Result of Land Reform

E.G. Chernykh, Can.Sc. (Economy), the Tyumen Industrial University, A.P. Sizov, Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography

The article substantiates the need to assess and predict changes in the elements (properties) of individual components of the environment. Also there is done similar change analysis of landscapes and territories as natural combinations of natural and natural-anthropogenic geographical components performed in the analysis and planning of the use of natural resources.

Keywords: land management, land settlements, land monitoring, environmental potential, territory, land.

 

Forest Resources

The Wildfire Influence on the Living Ground Cover in the Conditions of the Northern Taiga Subzone in Western Siberia

A.G. Magasumova, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), E.S. Zalesova, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), E.P. Platonov, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), A.S. Popov, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), N.I. Starodubtseva, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), A.F. Habibullin, the Ural State Forestry University (Ekaterinburg)

This article contains the analysis of wildfire influence on the species composition, overground phytomass and living ground cover species frequency in the cranberry-ledum and moss-small grass-berry pine forest types which are located in Agansk forestry (Khanti- Mansiysk Autonomous District). It was noted that significant wood losses among the trees with small trunk diameter were observed even after low-intensity wildfire. During the five year after high-intensity wildfire wood losses reach 80,7-83,8% of the forest stock. After the low-intensity wildfire in the pine forests of cranberry-ledum type overground phytomass of berry low shrubs increases rapidly, this is particularly true for Vaccinium myrtillus L. Wildfires that occur in pine forests of moss-small grass-berry type lead to increase of Polytrichum commune Hedw., V. vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L. and Ledum palustre L. overground phytomass and frequency.

Keywords: wildfire, forest stand, wood losses, living ground cover, berry low shrubs.

 

Biological Resources of Land

To the Knowledge of Quantitative Estimation of Seasonal Movements of Moose

V.M. Glushkov, Dc.Sc. (Biology), M.S. Sukhanova , the All-Russian Research Institute of Hunting and Farming, G.Y. Cantor, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Institute of Biology, the Komi Scientific Centre, the Ural Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The results of search works on quantitative estimation of moose movements (Alces alces L.) in the North-East of the European part of Russia are considered. There were studied 567 territorial sets of parameters characterizing the number and weather conditions in 2014-2019. Four clusters included 46 areas with different levels of moose migration activity. In the rest of the territory (56 districts) the migration status is not established. On-site of the Komi Republic in the season 2016/17 at extremely low temperatures in November, the rise in the number of elk by 11 thousand heads, followed by a reduction of 12 thousand heads, accompanied by a negative migration balance (-3167 individuals) in the group of 9 districts of the north and center, a positive balance (+1565 individuals) in the group of 6 districts of the north-east and zero - in the group of 3 southern and 1st central districts. The unreliable difference (N2017>Nsr) and in­complete data for the rest of the territory prevented the determination of the general migration vector. There are selected several areas suitable for the study of migration biogeochemical method.

Keywords: elk, migrations at the beginning of winter, relative number, migration activity, migration balance.

 

Water Biological Resources

Ecology of Marine Mammals: Socio-Economic and Legal Bases

O.V. Ustyantseva, Can.Sc. (Legal), the Saratov State University

It is shown that in Russia the problems of fishing, protection and use of marine mammals for a long time remain poorly developed. The article analyses the conceptual provisions of the modern projects «Blue Economy» and «Ecosystem Services» in relation to the conservation of aquatic ecosystems and marine animals. The classification of ecosystem services related to marine mammals proposed by the author will assist in the development of regional strategies for the conservation of ecosystems that contribute to the development of the ecoservices system and the improvement of human living space.

Keywords: marine mammals, habitat, «blue» carbon, «blue» economy, environmental safety, ecosystem services marine environ­ment, goals of sustainable development.

 

Climatic Resources

Changes in Extreme Precipitation on the Territory of the North Caucasus and the Crimean Peninsula for the Period 1961-2018

E.V. Vyshkvarkova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Institute of Natural and Technical Systems» (Sevastopol)

The spatial and temporal distribution of extreme precipitation over the territory of the North Caucasus and the Crimean peninsula was studied in the paper using daily data on the amount of precipitation from 31 stations for the period 1961-2018. Extreme precipita­tion was estimated using extreme precipitation indices. An analysis of linear trends showed statistically significant decreasing trends in the frequency and intensity of extremes on the territory of the Crimean peninsula. Positive and statistically significant trends were found on the Stavropol Upland.

Keywords: climate, extreme precipitation, trends, indices, North Caucasus, Crimean peninsula

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Analysis of the Monitoring System of Objects of Specially Protected Natural Territories on the Example of the Tyumen Region

O.V. Bogdanova, Can.Sc. (Economy), V.M. Okmyanskaya, the Tyumen Industrial University, A.P. Sizov, Dc.Sc. (Engineer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography

The article analyzes the monitoring system of protected areas on the example of a complex subject of the Russian Federation –Tyumen region. It discusses the features and main problems in managing objects of specially protected natural territories of the studied territory

Keywords: specially protected natural territories unified state system of environmental monitoring, monitoring subsystems.

 

Environmental Protection

Estimate of Ecological and Energy Efficiency of Renewable Energy Sources from Plant Raw Materials

G.A. Bulatkin, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The article gives the evidences of seven-year investigations carried in the South Moscow region of the new (for Russia) culture of Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. It has been found high biological, energy and ecological efficiency of the culture raise. It is supposed to use silver grass biomass as a heat carrier to replace carbon hydrates partially and reduce carbon oxide supply into the atmosphere. The technologies of pellet production from silver grass biomass from the start of plantation up to packing of the final products and their transportation for various distances to the consumer has been studied first energetically. It has been shown that transportation of the pellets for long distances minimizes energy and ecology efficiency of this renewable energy source.

Keywords: Paris climate agreement, energy use efficiency, biomass, extra energy, Miscanthus sinensis Anderss, technical energy, technologies, reduce carbon oxide in the atmosphere, green economy, alternative energy.

 

Pollution of Surface Waters of the Basin of the River Vilyui by Waste Mining

А.М. Salva, Can.Sc. (Geology), the Yakutsk State Agricultural Academy

The paper discusses pollution of surface waters of the rivers Irelyakh, Malaya Botuobiya and Vilyui by suspended solids, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese on the mineral deposit «Irelyakhskay rossip» (Irelyakhsk placer) mining plant «Mir» (Peaceful) joint stock company «Alrosa». The results of laboratory analysis of these samples are presented; as well as the reasons (causes) of pollution of river waters by these substances are identified

Keywords: water pollution, maximum permissible concentration (MPC), water bodies for fishery purposes, Irelyakh river, Vilyu river, Mirninsky mining and processing plant (GOK).

 

Cartography

Cartographic Analysis of Information About Objects of Accumulated Environmental Damage

E.A. Kravets, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography

The analysis and mapping of information about the objects of accumulated environmental damage accomplished in the article. Legal uncertainties and «white spots» in the relevant information are revealed.

Keywords: cartographic method, elimination, legal documents, environmental damage.

 

Nature and Human Society

Anniversaries

On the 70th Anniversary of the Prof. I.A. Sosunova,

 

The Route Length of Half a Century (to the 70th anniversary of the birth and the 50th anniversary of scientific and industrial activity S.V. Belov)

 

The Son of Soldier, Boy from a Children's Home, Secretary of an Academic Commission (on the 80th Anniversary of the Birth of V.S. Chesnokov)

E.P. Yanin, Can.Sc. (Geology), the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The article tells about the life, activities and creation of the scientific secretary of the Commission of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) on the development of the scientific heritage of academician V.I. Vernadsky, candidate of economic sciences V.S. Ches­nokov.

Keywords: history of science, creative heritage, V.S. Chesnokov, V.I. Vernadsky, S.A. Podolinsky, P.G. Kuznetsov.

 

Human Society and Nature

Actual Problems of Social Ecology

I.A. Sosunova, Prof.-Dc.Sc. (Sociolog.), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources» (NIA-Nature)

This article is concentrated on modern actual problems of social ecology and the subject of social ecology. Assessment of ecologi­cal situation in Russia for the last decade, the sociological data of experts and index of ecological tension are given too.

Keywords: social ecology, ecological situation, sociological data of experts, index of ecological tension.

 

Calendar of Events

XV International Scientific and Practical Symposium «Pure Water of Russia-2019»

A.V. Shevchuk, Dc.Sc. (Economy), the Deputy Chairperson, CSPF, RAFT, the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, the Russian Federation

 

Bookshelf

The Second Edition of the Popular Science Book «Environmental Culture»

Ischkov A.G., Rybalsky N.G., Grachev V.A. Environmental Culture. Ed. 2. – Moscow: Russian Ecological Academy, 2019. – 416 p.

 

New Statistical Compilation

Water Resources and Water Management of Russia in 2018 (Statistical Handbook) / Ed. N.G. Rybalsky and V.A. Omelyanenko. – Moscow: NIA-Priroda, 2019. – 274 p.

 

Бюллетень

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