Поиск:

Авторизация

Логин:
Пароль:
Запомнить меня на этом компьютере
  Забыли свой пароль?
  Регистрация




2019 / 2

NATURE

 

NATURE

Common Problems of Nature Management

Results of Activity of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation and Development Priorities

D.N. Kobylkin, the Minister, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology, the Russian Federation

This material is based on the report of the Head of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of Russian Federation D.N. Kobylkin at the enlarged meeting of the Collegia of the Ministry on the results of 2018 and priorities on 2019 (April 15, 2019, Moscow).

Keywords: natural resources, nature management, environmental protection, mineral, forest and water resources, hydrometeorology, biodiversity, protected areas, national project «Ecology».

 

Mineral Resources

Modern Permafrost Dynamics (Root Causes and Monitoring)

M.M. Shats, Can.Sc.(Georaph.), the Permafrost Institute nam. after P.I. Melnikov, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The relevance of studying the main trends of the permafrost dynamics and the scale of its consequences is shown. The main features of the frozen ground development area are described too. There are the results of studying the response to climate change of one of the least stable components of the natural environment – multiyear’s frozen ground (MFG). The article highlights the main methods and approaches to monitoring the state of MFG’s, as well as the economic aspects of their deformation.

Keywords: main causes and trends of the current permafrost dynamics, cryolithozone specificity, technogenesis, methods and approaches for monitoring the state of MFG.

 

Water Resources

Why Russia «River Doctrine»?

A.A. Belyakov, Dr.Sc.(Geograph.), the Institute of Demography, Migration and Regional Development

It is shown that abundance of the rivers and unevenness of distribution of their drain in time and at the territories predetermines need of implementation of grand state projects on a construction of dams and the reservoirs regulating a river drain, and also multipurpose interbasin connections. Defects of the water legislation existing in Russia are revealed and recommendations about its correction are made too. Strategic bases of a state policy concerning internal waters are offered. Also there is supplied information on the offered draft of the River doctrine of the Russian Federation: author assumes reconstruction of the rivers into cascades of reservoirs, use of their water energy and a construction of multipurpose interbasin connections.

Keywords: water management, water law, internal waterways, cascades of reservoirs, regulation of a river drain, use of water energy of the rivers, interbasin connections.

 

Assessment of the Impact of Mining Industry on the State of Water Resources in the Lena River Basin

V.I. Klepov, Prof.-Dr.Sc.(Engineer.), the Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy nam. after K.A. Timiryazev, E.L. Yakovleva, the Moscow-Oka Territorial Administration for Fisheries

Using the example of mining operations conducted in the Lena River basin, the need to assess the consequences of human activities is considered. In this connection, it is proposed to carry out remediation activities in areas left without leveling and soil, as well as reasonable intervention in changing the river channel for the extraction of gold-bearing rocks. This will speed up the process of restoring natural communities and more rational use of natural resources.

Keywords: river hydrology, river basin, natural environment, nature conservation, succession.

 

Morphodynamics of Valley Complexes of the Rivers of the Selenga Basin

A.V. Chernov, Dr.Sc.(Geograph.), A.S. Zavadsky, Can.Sc.(Geograph.), the Geographical Faculty, the Moscow State University

The article deals with the general and regional features of the formation of valley and riverbed complexes of the Selenga basin. Of particular interest are the results of field observations of the intensity and direction of the horizontal channel deformations in small and medium rivers of the Mongolian part of the basin conducted in 2011-2012 years. Made generalization allows to give a spatial characteristic of the morphodynamics of floodplain-channel complexes of the Selenga basin, the visualization of which was presented in the form of a series of thematic maps in the Atlas-monograph «The Selenga-Baikal».

Keywords: Selenga river basin, river valleys, river channel processes, stationary surveillance, erosion of banks, regional analysis.

 

Land Resources and Soils

State Cadastral Valuation of Industrial and Other Special Purpose Lands and the Environmental Component

D.S. Valiev, Can.Sc.(Economy), I.A. Khabarova,Can.Sc. (Engineer.), D.A. Khabarov, the State University of Land Use Planning

The article concludes that the main problems of accounting for the environmental component in the cadastral valuation of industrial lands and other special purposes lands are the absence of a unified methodology for the registration of environmental parameters, approved at the state level, and the lack of generally accepted environmental parameters. The authors of the article proposed a number of provisions that can serve as a conceptual basis for the development of methodological bases for the registration of environmental factors in the cadastral valuation of industrial lands and other special purposes lands.

Keywords: state cadastral valuation of lands, industrial lands and other special purposes lands, environmental parameters, classification of industrial objects.

 

The Content of Heavy Metals in the Soils of Sevastopol

E.V. Yaseneva, Can.Sc.(Geograph.), the Branch of the Moscow State University (Sevastopol), the Crime Board of the Russian Ecological Academy, I.A. Yaseneva, the Geographical Faculty, the Moscow State University

The content of heavy metals in the soils of the city of Sevastopol in the upper layer of the soil was considered on the lands of various uses. The main statistical indicators and average concentrations of pollutants on various methods of averaging are calculated. There is also received cartographic material on total pollution of a soil cover of the city. In general Sevastopol soils refer to the valid categories of pollution identified by a separate sample area with exceeded content of Pb, Cu, Zn.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil pollution, urban soils, statistical indicators.

 

Forest Resources

Environment Quality Estimation on Karabash Urban Region Territory on the State of Birch

S.V. Zalesov, Dr.Sc.(Agricult.), A.V. Bachurina, Cand.Sc.(Agricult.), the Ural State Forest Engineering University

Environment conditions on Karabash urban region territory (South-Ural forest-steppe woody region) has been analyzed on the base of birch bark leaf plates fluctuative asymmetry index (Betula pendula Roth.). Birch bark trees growing at different distance from industrial pollutants sources as well as growing on recultivated sites (reclamated land) of Zolotaya mountain have been chosen as the object of investigations. As a whole, environment condition on region territory, in spite of efforts undertaken improve the situation is still unfavorable.

Keywords: Karabashmed (copper production plant), environment quality, birch bark, fluctuative asymmetry, asymmetry integral index, leaf plate, industrial pollutants.

 

Biological Resources of Land

Chozenia and Anthropogenous Influence on River Floodplains in the Basin of Kolyma Upstreams

A.V. Alfimov, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), D.I. Berman, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Biological Problems, the North Far East Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Magadan

The most productive landscapes of Kolyma headwaters (upstreams) basin – talik floodplains – suffer from man impact in form of the construction of hydropower station and gold mining. Regulated run-off transforms a relief of Kolyma floodplain that conducts to degradation of deciduous forests – the object of protection of Seimchan site in the natural reserve (zapovednic) «Magadansky». Three times reduction of the floodplain areas where chozenia reproduction is possible, through 70-90 years, can cause change of structure of these forests. Gold mining destroyed valleys about 500 creeks where revegetation is interfered by absence of organogenic soil and dryness of washed out grounds. Features of chozenia ecology do this species perspective for revegetation of the disturb lands in northern part of its areal.

Keywords: floodplains, chozenia, Kolyma upstreams, hydroconstruction, gold mining, revegetation.

 

Water Biological Resources

Nanobiotechnological Principle of Sexual Process Control in Fish

T.M. Dmitrieva, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), Yu.P. Kozlov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Russian Ecological Society

An ecological-biotechnological method of controlling the sexual process in fish is presented on the basis of the preparation (drug) «Feromin-1» obtained by the authors, representing an environmentally safe drug to stimulate the maturation of fish in fish farms. This preparation allows a significant increase in fish productivity, restore natural spawning grounds, fish populations, stimulate artificial fish farming.

Keywords: ecological-biotechnological method, sexual pheromones of fish, control of the sexual process of fish, preparation (drug) «Feromin-1».

 

Climatic Resources

Regime, Anomalies and Long-Term Variability of Wind-Wave Conditions of the Sevastopol Region (The continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 1, 2019)

V.N. Maslova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, V.A. Naumova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), V.P. Evstigneev, Can.Sc. (Phys.-Mathemat.), the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, the Sevastopol Center for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring

The following climatic and anomalous characteristics of the wind-wave conditions of the Sevastopol region were obtained: average monthly wind speed, average monthly wave height, monthly and annual maximums of wave speed and height, frequency of various gradations of wind speed and wave height, in directions, etc. Also there was done the analysis of the frequency of wave heights and wind speeds, which reached the criterion of unfavorable and dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena. The periods of stable positive (1954-1983) and negative (1984-2018) values of anomalies of mean monthly (maximum) wave heights in all seasons and months were identified in the article according to observations at the hydrometeorological station on the Cape Chersonese.

Keywords: regional climate, frequency of storms, periodic variability, wave-dangerous directions, storm activity, southwest Crimea, Black Sea coast.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Heavy Metal Contents in Different Components of the Main Water Body of the Specially Protected Natural Area (SPNA) «Dolina of the River Volgusha and Paramonovsky ravine»

A.I. Ivanova, N.V. Kuznetsova, Can.Sc.(Biology), the Dmitrovsky Fishery Technological Institute, the Branch of the Astrakhan State Technical University, urb.-type settlem. Ribnoe, the Moscow region

There are presents the results of studies of the Volgusha River carried out during the vegetation period of 2017. The physicogeographical characteristics of Volgusha River basin are described, the elements of the hydrological regime are described too, and the river is hydrochemi cally estimated by the content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn ) in water, bottom sediments and macrophytes of this river. Research materials of the Volgusha River can serve for the ecological assessment of the catchment area of the river, which is part of the SPNA (nature zakaznic) «Dolina of the River Volgusha and the Paramonovsky ravine».

Keywords: river, heavy metals, water, bottom sediments, macrophytes, correlation coefficient, hydrochemical analysis, SPNA.

 

Environmental Protection

Environmental Quality Control and Fees for a Negative Impact on the Environment

I.P. Blokov, Can.Sc. (Engeneer.), the Public Non-Profit Non-Governmental Organization (PNPNGO) «Greenpeace Council»

A fees for a negative environmental impact must regulate this impact. However, its collection did not lead to the reduction of pollution to standard levels. In recent years the total fees was decreasing; it felt down by three times from 2013 to 2018. Fees reduction does not correspond to changes in the emissions, discharges and waste generation. The artical identify the reasons for reducing the efficiency of fees on the base of actual data. Annual fees indexation does not compensate inflation. The list of considered substances was shortened, daily average MAC (maximum allowable concentration) of several common substances was increased, fee for emissions from mobile sources was canceled, coefficient 2 in the Arctic zone was canceled, etc. The author proposed a number of system measures to restore the regulatory role of these payments.

Keywords: pollution fees, negative impact on the environment, environmental protection, pollution control, economic incentives, environmental activities.

 

Application of the Mechanisms of Environmental Risk Insurance as one of the Development Directions of the Theory of Sustainable Development of the Economy

L.S. Krutova, the Institute for Advanced Studies and Retraining, the Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN)

The article deals with the problem of greening the economy, the transition to green growth and ensuring sustainable development of the entire socio-economic system of Russia. There is done the analysis of the theoretical foundations and practice of creating environmental insurance business institutions in choosing a mechanism combining raising funds and creating environmental programs. All this instruments affects on operation and development prospects of industrial objects and developing a methodological approach to assessing the formation of a market for environmental insurance services.

Keywords: green economy, best available technologies, sustainable development, environmental and economic management, greening the economy, environmental risk, environmental insurance.

 

Primary and Secondary Contamination of the Sediments and Bottom Layers of the Water Bodies by Heavy Metals

N.V. Kolomiytsev, Can.Sc. (Geology), B.I. Korzhenevsky, Can.Sc. (Geology), G.Yu. Tolkachev, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Hydrotechnics and Land Reclamation nam. after A.N. Kostyakov

One of the most important indicators of water quality is the content of heavy metals and their distribution in the sediments, soils or aquifers. In this regard the results of field studies and laboratory experiments are given. They make it possible to estimate the flow of trace elements from the sediments and the possibility of secondary pollution of water mass, depending on a number of hydrochemical and hydrological factors.

Keywords: sediments, heavy metals, pore water, solid phase, contamination.

 

Cartography

Objects of Accumulated Environmental Damage in the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Development Municipal Economy

A.M. Dregulо, Can.Sc. (Biology), the St.-Petersburg Center for Environmental Safety, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The problems of territorial planning associated with the appearance of objects of accumulated environmental damage are described. It is shown that the underestimation of the transformation of municipal facilities in the objects of accumulated environmental damage becomes a factor of violation of the complexity of the urban economy and the negative impact on the development of socioeconomic facilities.

Keywords: accumulated environmental damage, wastewater disposal systems, sewage sludge landfill, landscape degradation, territorial planning, spatial and temporal dynamics, urban agglomeration.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

Anniversaries

On the 90th anniversary of V.G. Sokolovsky

On the 70th anniversary of G.S. Rosenberg

 

International Cooperation

Economic Schemes of the Green Economy

A.I. Pisarenko, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Federal Forestry Agency (Rosleskhoz), V.V. Strakhov, Dr.Sc.(Agricult.), the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Forestry and Mechanization (VNIILM), Rosleskhoz

The article contains a review of a number of economic development models that have been widely discussed in international forums in recent years in connection with the development of a green economy – green growth, bioeconomy, cyclical or circular economy, inclusive economy. Considers the value of ecosystem services provided by forests and taking into account multiple functions in areas such as biodiversity, disaster risk reduction, climate change mitigation, coupled with the economic and social importance of various forest products. Assessments of development progress towards a green economy require assessments of the value of natural forest capital, including forest ecosystem services and the inclusion of these concepts in the system of economic features related to forest management.

Keywords: green economy, green growth, bioeconomy, cyclical or circular economy, inclusive economy, ecosystem services provided by forests, natural capital of forests.

 

Human Society and Nature

To the 25th Anniversary of Information Support of Environmental Activities in Russia

N.G. Rybalsky, Dc.Sc. (Biology), NIA-Priroda

The article is devoted to the 25th anniversary of the creation of the Russian Environmental Federal Information Agency (REFIA). It was created by the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia for the purpose of information support, information-analytical and environmental education activities in the country. The analysis of the main achievements of the Agency in this field, the emerging problems and ways to solve them are presented.

Keywords: Russian Environmental Federal Information Agency (REFIA), environmental information, environmental education, information support of environmental activities.

 

Calendar of Events

Ecology of Man and Nature in the Information Technology Environment

V. Falko, Deputy Chairman of the Organizing Committee, the Correspond.-Member, the Russian Ecological Academy, T. Windeker

There are materials of the 10th International Scientific Conference on the Problems of the Ecological Worldview «Ecology of Man and Nature in the Information Technology Environment» («EcoMir-10») held on June 5-6 2019 in the Mytishchi branch of the Moscow State Technical University nam. after N.E. Bauman.

 

Bookshelf

The First Textbook for Postgraduate Studies on Land Monitoring

Бюллетень «Использование и охрана природных ресурсов в России»

© 1998-2019, Национальное информационное агентство «Природные ресурсы»
При перепечатке ссылка на источник обязательна
Адрес: 108811, г. Москва, г.п. Московский, Бизнес-парк "Румянцево", офис 352-Г, НИА-Природа тел./факс: 8(495)240-51-27, e-mail: nia_priroda@mail.ru