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2018 / 4

NATURE

 

Common Problems of Nature Management

Contribution of Natural Climatic and Anthropogenic Factors in Water Resources Changing

N.I. Koronkevich, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), E.A. Barabanova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), A.G. Georgiadi, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), S.V. Dolgov, Can.Sc.(Geograph.), K.S. Melnik, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences

The main goal of this article is to show the ratio of natural-climatic and anthropogenic factors contribution in water resources changes at different territorial levels. Methods of geography-hydrological comparison, water balance and methods of the hydrometeorological data analysis are applied. There was estimated how this ratio changed over the past decades as applied to spring surface slope runoff. Anthropogenic changes dominated during 1960-1980. They are mainly represented by fall ploughing reached its maximum development in this period. In turn, it has led to decrease of spring surface slope runoff and spring flood runoff decrease. In XXI century spring flood runoff decrease is mainly related to climatic factors like air temperature increase in winter season, soil frost depth decrease, snow break amplification. The commensurability of changes in annual runoff in recent decades due to climate change and anthropogenic impacts on annual runoff is illustrated by the example of the Volga and the Don rivers. Runoff seasonal changes of the Volga and the Don rivers as well as other Russian rivers, global world rivers, caused mainly by anthropogenic factors, in turn, reservoirs creation. The prevailing role of anthropogenic factors in the water quality transformation of rivers and water bodies is undoubtedly important.

Keywords: runoff, different territorial levels changes, ratio of natural-climatic and anthropogenic factors.

 

Mineral Resources

Resource Potential and Industrial Prospects of the Badis Molybdenum Deposit

D.E. Vydrich, the All-Russian Institute of Mineral Resources (VIMS), the Rosnedra,

S.V. Belov, Dr.Sc. (Geology), the Limited Liability Company (LLC) «OZGEO»

The urgency of the development of the raw material base of molybdenum in South Yakutia in connection with the creation of the mining and smelting cluster and the need for the priority development of the Eastern regions of the country is substantiated. The structural features of the Badis deposit are characterized, ore-controlling factors and localization conditions for molybdenum and associated mineralization are identified. The characteristics of ore-productive granitoids, the sequence of their introduction, metasomatism processes, staging and zoning of ore formation are studied. There are deciphered the inner structure of the stockwork and the history of its formation. A prognostic model of the field has been created and its industrial prospects are outlined. Recommendations for further exploration work have been developed.

Keywords: molybdenum, Badis deposit, ore controlling factors, ore formation staging, stockwork morphology, prognostic model, resource potential.

 

Water Resources

Management by the Russian Processes as an Important Element of the Effective Use of Water Resources

R.S. Chalov, Prof.-Dc.Sc.(Geology), the Faculty of Geography, the Moscow State University

Channel processes management is expected to be the most important component part of effective hydroeconomic and water transport activities on rivers. For the first time it is made the determination of channel processes management and their classification according to the level of human impact on rivers: on the urban and economically developed territories; in case of several objects of economic activity existence; on navigable rivers; in case of single objects projection. Here we suggest that rivers may be divided to several categories according to the schemes of channel processes management, prognosis possibilities of channel development and river riffles transformations. All these aspects are connected with channel stability, channel morphodynamic type, channel sediment compound, sediment flow, diverse influence of different hydraulic engineering structures and arrangements. There are determined the aims of channel processes monitoring as the base for the channel processes management projects development.

Keywords: channel processes, management, projection of water related activities, waterways, monitoring.

 

Justification of the Need for Environmental Protection Hydrotechnical Structures in the High-Flood Control in the Rivers of Siberia and the Far East

V.A. Zimnjukov, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), M.I. Zborovskaya, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Institute of Land Reclamation, Water Management and Construction, the Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy

The article discusses the main measures to combat floods, operational and preventive measures for flood protection. The causes of losses from large floods and recommendations for their reduction are briefly analysed. The most effective way to combat the harmful effects of flooding is the construction of waterworks with reservoirs for long-term regulation.

Keywords: flood, high-flood (freshet), natural disaster, flood damage, flood control measures and structures, protection measures, reservoirs, river flow, protective dams.

 

Land Resources and Soils

Soil Science at YouTube

N.N. Rybalskiy, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University, V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Research Centre «Agroprognoz»

Websites are regarded as multi-dimensial information entities. In the article there is analysed development of soil-themed internet-resources on an example of the Faculty of Soil Science (the Moscow State University) website. Also it is studied historical aspects of soil science department's website. Specifications of transit between series of soil faculty website versions compared to different periods of web-technologies' development are exposed too. Consistent patterns of web-technologies development and alteration of information concept of soil scientists' communities in internet there is studied.

Keywords: Internet, website, portal, web page, IT, information technologies, soil science, soil, ecology, soil scientist, web services, Internet technologies, web design, scientific representation, Internet representation, cms, html, frames.

 

The Results of the Development of the Algorithm for the Implementation of Municipal Land Control in the Russian Federation

L.S. Burlakova, O.V. Miklashevskaya, A.P. Sizov, Prof.-Dc.Sc. (Engineer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

In view of the observed trend of environmental degradation in our country, there is a need for measures to monitor the status and use of land plots (land inspection and control). In this article the features of carrying out checks are considered and the algorithm of implementation of municipal land control of a condition and use of the parcels of land taking into account the analysis of the main types of violations of requirements of the land legislation is presented.

Keywords: land plots, state land inspection, municipal land control, land legislation, planned and unscheduled inspections.

 

Forest Resources

The Participation Share of Forest Stands with Larch (Larix sukaczewii Dyl.) in the Forest Composition on the Territory of the South Urals

A.S. Opletaev, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), G.A. Godovalov, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), S.V. Zalesov, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), E.C. Zalesova, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), A.I. Chermnykh, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), the Ural State Forestry Engineering University

At bas been established chat stands with Sukachevs larch participation are available in all the forest areas of the southern Urals within Chelyabinsk region. However the abovementioned stands are essentially different. At in the forest subregion (okrug) Mountain Urals the larch is available in 5395 all of apportions then in the Eastern Urals peneplain subregion (okrug), forest steppe only in 10. As a whole Chelyabinsk region stands share (forest apportions/allotments) with Sukachevs larch participation in growing stock composition don’t exceed 3.37% and when the undergrowth of the given species is available only 0.03%. The larch tree doesn’t grow on damp and wet forest growing conditions and stands with its participation are available mainly in berry and grass lime forest type groups.

Keywords: South Urals, Sukachevs larch, forests stand, growing stock, composition, forest productivity increasing.

 

Biodiversity

Preliminary Results of the Reintroduction of Nectaroscordum tripedale (Alliaceae) and Paeonia tenuifolia (Paeoniaceae) in Dagestan

Z.A. Guseynova, Can.Sc. (Biology), R.A. Murtazaliev, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Mountain Botanical Garden, the Dagestan Scientific Centre, the Russian Academy of Science (RAS)

The possibility of reintroducing two rare species of the flora of Dagestan was studied: Paeonia mlokosewitschii Lomak. and Nectaroscordum tripedale (Trautv.) Grossh. It was revealed that a Paeonia mlokosewitschii has a rather high percentage of survival, and for Nectaroscordum tripedale an increase in the number in a short period due to vegetative and seed propagation is characteristic. It was shown that by reintroduction, restoration of natural populations of both studied species is possible.

Keywords: Nectaroscordum tripedale, Paeonia mlokosewitschii, rare species, population, reintroduction.

 

Biological Resources of Land

The Bonitation of Forest Land by the Dark Bee

А.M. Sharygin, Cand. Sc. (Agricult.), the Limited Liability Company (LLC) «ZDOROVYI LES», А.V. Кrivtsovа, LTD «Eco Region Lab»

The article presents the version of forest land bonitation for the purpose to determine the prospects of settling the Dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera L.) in the natural and historical habitat, selection of the most effective biotechnical activity, calculation of the density of the settlement of the beefamilies and the development of beekeeping in the forest. There is identified that the existing system of forestry has led to a significant predominance of uncharacteristic Dark bee lands (98%), and the restoration of forest beekeeping is possible only in the case of intensive use of appropriate biotechnical activity, and often, indigenous forest reclamation.

Keywords: the Dark bee, the bonitation of forest land, territory bonitet class, capacity of land, the feeding value of the land, biotechnical activity.

 

Water Biological Resources

Global Warming and Fishery in the Far East of Russia

P.A. Balykin, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Southern Scientific Centre, the Russian Academy of Science (RAS)

It is analysed possible influence of processes of global warming on results of the Russian fishery in the seas of the Far East. Possibly, the nearest decade it is necessary to expect decrease in volumes of extraction in Pacific waters of Kamchatka, and later - and in the western part of the Bering Sea. It is drawn a conclusion about on an absolute must of careful studying the given question with a view of long-term forecasting a condition of a fishing industry of the Far East Russia.

Keywords: global warming, fishery, the Far East of Russia, a pollack, a cod, Pacific salmons.

 

Climatic Resources

Assessment and Forecast of River Flow in the Volga River Basin Taking into Account Possible Climate Change

G.Kh. Ismaiylov, Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), N.V. Muraschenkova, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy

There is done the estimation of changes of elements of the Volga River basin water balance as a whole to the city of Volgograd and its partial watersheds in the first half of the XXI century. Forecast changes in the statistical characteristics of the water balance of the river Volga basin of elements is based on the five meteorological data sets for multi-year period 1914/1915 - 2010/2011 years. To forecast changes in the statistical parameters of the water balance based on three concepts, including the concept of stationary, quasi-stationary and nonstationary hydrometeorological processes. When forecasting water balance elements we gave priority to global climate change and its impact on regional climate, which in turn affects the water resources of the Volga River basin. Mean value of the annual runoff of the Volga River basin as a whole (to the city of Volgograd) in the beginning of the first half of the XXI century (2011- 2030 years) will vary from 198 mm to 202 mm for the most «hard» A2 scenario. For a more «soft» scenario A1B rate of annual runoff of the Volga River will vary from 194 mm to 200 mm, at a rate of flow in the base period (1914-15 - 2010-11 years) equal to 190 mm/year. For the most «hard» scenario A2 norm of annual runoff of the Volga river varies from 200 mm to 211 mm.

Keywords: elements of water balance, river flow, river basin, stationary, non-stationary, climate change, climate models.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Assessment of the Recreational Potential of Coniferous Plantations of Specially Protected Natural Areas of the Middle Urals

A.A. Shudegov, the Department of Forestry and Forests, the Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy

The article describes the characteristics of specially protected natural areas of the Middle Urals region, provides an assessment of the suitability of using coniferous plantations for recreation and visits to the population, depending on the origin, type of forest, location and stage of digression.

Keywords: specially protected natural areas, recreation, coniferous plantations, national park, nature reserve, attractiveness, comfort, stability, recreational value.

 

Environmental Protection

Topical Issues in the Field of Waste Management of the Bioplastics Industry

V.А. Terekhova, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University, the Institute of Ecology and Evolution (RAS), N.G. Rybalskiy, Dr.Sc. (Biology), Т.О. Poputnikova, Can.Sc. (Biology), P.A. Kiryushin, Can.Sc. (Economy), the Moscow State University, V.A. Karpov, Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Institute of Ecology and Evolution (RAS)

The article highlights the growing scale of production and, accordingly, the accumulation of polymeric waste and bioplastics in natural soils and waters, the relevance of two aspects of the bioplastic industry – resource conservation and ecology. From the point of view of ecology, the role of bioplastics is far from ambiguous. The components entering into them interfere with the recycling scheme, which is unified with traditional plastics. Markings on products demonstrating biodegradability, as a rule, do not actually correspond to the real rate of destruction. It is necessary to provide a number of conditions (composting, light, humidity, humic components, etc.) in order to realize the declared biodegradability on markings. In experiments with composting of polymer conditionally biodegradable materials treated with mycobacterial spores, the effect of CO2-stimulating additives and the aggressiveness of fungi are shown. When treating polymers with mycobacterial spores, toxicity is detected, control of which is proposed to be included as an element of eco-monitoring of degradation of bioplastics.

Keywords: production of bioplastics, utilization of polymer waste, biodegradation, rational use of natural resources, monitoring of natural ecosystems, toxicity biotesting.

 

Cartography

Analysis of Information on Air Pollution as a Method of Correction of Regulatory and Methodological Documents

E.A. Kravets, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

The article presents a geographical analysis of the project «Method of calculating the amount of damage to atmospheric air as a component of the natural environment». The coefficients of condition of atmospheric air are exposed. A strong discrepancy between the coefficients and the actual problems of air pollution is revealed too.

Keywords: air pollution, harm, spatial analysis.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

International Cooperation

Sustainable Forest Management and «Green Economy»

A.I. Pisarenko, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Russian Society of Foresters, V.V. Strakhov, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.),the All-Russian Research Institute for Forestry and Mechanization (VNIILM), the Federal Forestry Agency

The article contains an overview and reflections of the authors in connection with the known stages of progress in the development of a new ecological worldview and the practical relationship of mankind with the environment. The basis for the review and analysis was the UN conferences of 1972, 1992 and 2012, practical steps to optimize economic development, taking into account its environmental impact, in particular the transition to a «green economy» in the context of sustainable development.

Keywords: sustainable development, forestry, sustainable forest management, sustainable development of forestry, «green economy».

 

Human Society and Nature

Culture and Sustainable Development: Measuring Linkages to Design Strategies for the Future

E.V. Nikonorova, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Philosoph.), the Russian State Library, the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration

The article reveals the components of the system of indicators developed by UNESCO to measure the relationship of culture and development, as well as the proposals presented in the discussion of the Sustainable Development Goals for the period up to 2030 by the Open-ended Working Group established by the UN and consisting of representatives of non-governmental and governmental organizations. In addition, attention is focused on the main directions of public activity on the development of indicators to assess the impact of culture on sustainable development, allowing monitoring of cultural processes and changes in the territories. The active role of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) in the dissemination of these ideas and in supporting the role of culture in sustainable development by libraries is recorded.

Keywords: culture, sustainable development, indicators of culture and development measurement, future development strategies, cultural impact assessment, natural capital, cultural capital, human capital, new measurement practices, post-non-classical science.

 

Calendar of Events

On the results of the Russian delegation's participation, the 24nd of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC

(Katowice, Poland, 2-15 December 2018)

A.A. Romanovskaya, the Correspondent-Member, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Director, the Institute of Global Climate and Ecology

 

Bookshelf

Бюллетень

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