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2019 / 1

NATURE

 

Mineral Resources

Lithium sorption by industrial cationites from the heat driver of the Paratuna deposit of the Kamchatka region

G.V. Popov, the Research Geological Center, the Far Eastern Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The prospects of using industrial sorbents for the integrated use of a geothermal coolant, with the aim of obtaining lithium, are shown. Along the way, in the extraction of lithium, it is possible to extract other metals and minerals, which in turn will reduce the maximum permissible concentrations in the recycled heat transfer medium. Also there is studied the dependence of the degree of extraction of lithium ions on the temperature of the used geothermal solution Paratuna deposit in the Kamchatka region. The characteristics of ion exchange and selectivity of industrial sorbents with respect to lithium cations in the presence of alkali and alkaline-earth metals are analyzed. There were reviewed separation coefficients too. The sorption isotherm on the contact time of the phases was constructed.

Keywords: sorption, lithium, cation exchangers, extraction, geothermal coolant, Paratuna deposit (Paratunskoye field), environmental protection, complex processing, static exchange capacity, sorption isotherm.

 

Water Resources

Providing Russian population with safe drinking water: condition, problems, solutions

A.P. Demin, D.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Water Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The data on the provision of the housing stock of the Russian Federation (by subjects of the Federation) with centralized water supply in 2000-2017 are given. There is shown the growth of deterioration of the water supply network and its influence on the increase in the share of leaks in the total volume of water supplied to the network. The share of falsified and used pipes in the construction and reconstruction of water supply systems is 20-30%; state of the plumbing economy is estimated as a crisis. The average daily water consumption of urban and rural residents as a result of the introduction of a complex of water-saving measures decreased by 110 liters or 43%. For 2000-2017 the proportion of unsatisfactory samples for sanitary and chemical indicators in reservoirs of the first category decreased by only 2 percentage points, and for microbiological indicators – by 5.5 percentage points.

Keywords: centralized water supply, water supply network, water leaks, groundwater, water metering devices, water quality in sources, safe drinking water.

 

Current trends in perennial changes in suspended sediment discharge in Russian rivers

S.R. Chalov, Can.Sc. (Geolog.), the Faculty of Geography, the Moscow State University

Spatial changes of sediment transport in the end of XX-early XXI centuries over the territory of Russia are discussed. The study emphasizes shifts in sediment patterns over the early XXI century, as well as spatial variability related to impacts from natural changes and economic activity (land use drivers). The most drastic change in sediment transport have been reported over the Northern part of the East Siberia (from 2-3 at the largest rivers to 10-fold increase at the small rivers) due to mining impacts and thermal erosion processes governed by climate change. Most significant sediment decline (3-4-fold decrease) have been seen at the Southern area of Russia due to water runoff decrease and sediment trapping by reservoirs.

Keywords: sediment transport, sediment concentration, long-term changes, reservoirs, climate change.

 

Land Resources and Soils

Cadastral assessment of soils in respect of the agricultural lands in the Urals federal district

P.M. Sapozhnikov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the Moscow State University, A.K. Ogleznev, Can.Sc. (Biology), Y.N. Filippova, the Dokuchaev Soil Institute

The cadastral value of agricultural lands located in the Urals Federal District varies from 2 900 rubles per hectare (ha) for peat-podzolic soils to 87 300 rubles per ha for black soils. For soils tainted by the development of solodization and alkalinization processes the decline in the cadastral values of black soils varies from 50 to 90%. The cadastral values of sod-podzolic soils do not exceed 17,000 rub. per ha, those of gray forest soils – 45,000 rub. per ha. For arable lands affected by the erosion processes under the condition of medium erosion, the cadastral value diminution can reach up to 45%, and for highly-eroded soils the respective reduction in the cadastral value can reach up to 90%. The sensitivity of the approaches for assessing the cadastral values to different soil-geographical conditions is discussed.

Keywords: main types (sub-types) of soils, Urals Federal District, normative yield of agricultural crops, normative costs, market prices for agricultural crops, unit values, cadastral values of lands.

 

Modern condition of the worked peat roots of the Ryazan Meschera

K.N. Evsenkin, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrotechnics and Melioration, O.A. Zakharova, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), F.А. Musaev, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the Russian State Agrarian University (c. Ryazan), N.P. Karpenko, Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Russian State Agrarian University-the Moscow Agricultural Academy nam. after K.A. Timiryazev

Monitoring researches of the worked peat soils on four reclamation facilities of the Ryazan Meshchera with the purpose of studying the water-physical and meliorative state of them have been carried out. It has been established that prolonged irrational use of drained peat soils in agricultural production and its subsequent removal from circulation, as well as deformation of elements of the drying system, leads to soil degradation and its secondary water logging. The draining of objects began in the 1950s. It was revealed that for a long period of use of drained peat mass a significant deposit of peat occurred, the volumetric mass increased to 0.58 g/cm3. The ash content of the peat indicates its conversion to humified mass, etc. The results of monitoring peat soil at the meliorative site also indicate the development of secondary bogging.

Keywords: Ryazan Meshchera, peat soil, drainage, water logging, landscape, swamping, degradation, secondary bogging.

 

Forest Resources

The underlying causes of the formation of «green» economy ideas

A.I. Pisarenko, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Forestry Society, V.V. Strakhov, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the All-Russian Research Institute for Forestry and Mechanization (VNIILM), the Federal Forestry Agency (Rosleskhoz)

The article is devoted to the analysis of the best ways of economic development of forestry in order to preserve economic benefits from the use of forests and forest resources, combined with the preservation of the forests and all inhabitants of forest ecosystems. The concepts of sustainable forest management and the concept of the «green economy» are analyzed.

Keywords: «green» economy, «brown» economy, forestry, sustainable forest management, forest ecosystems, economic benefits.

 

Biodiversity

The quality of wild animal populations and the problems of preserving the subspecific purity of their genotype

O.A. Manuylova, K.E. Smirnov, A.S. Igolkin1, Can.Sc. (Veterinar.), D.N. Fedoseeva, the Federal Centre for Animal Health-FGBI «ARRIAH» (c. Vladimir), M.N. Sotskaya, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education (MSUPE)

It has been shown that in Russia there was a threat of intraspecific breeding of wild animals and wild animals with domestic ones due to the search for the most cost-effective methods of hunting management and the insufficient legal framework protecting natural biodiversity. Concrete proposals are made to remedy the current situation with the preservation of the subspecific purity of the genotype of such wild animals as the wild boar and the European red deer.

Keywords: wild boar, European red deer, farm deer, habitat, «species pollution», hybridization, breeding, genetics of wild animals.

 

Biological Resources of Land

Small-leaved linden as one of the predominant species in the stand composition of the Bashkortostan Republic

R.R. Isyanyulova, Can.Sc. (Biology), E.N. Talipov, postgraduate student, the Bashkir State Agrarian University

The article presents the analyzed data on distribution of small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) on the territory of administrative areas and the Ufa city (the Bashkortostan Republic). There is a comparative analysis of changes on the covered areas and a wood stock for 2016-2018. On the whole, there are mostly mature and overmature linden stands in the forest stock of the Bashkortostan Republic that proves lack of integrated use of linden-trees.

Keywords: Bashkortostan Republic, linden-tree forest, small-leaved linden, dominant species, total stock, covered area.

 

Climatic Resources

Regime, anomalies and long-term variability of wind-wave conditions of the Sevastopol region

V.N. Maslova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, V.A. Naumova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), V.P. Evstigneev, Can.Sc. (Phys.-Mathemat.), the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, the Sevastopol Center for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring

The following climatic and anomalous characteristics of the wind-wave conditions of the Sevastopol region were obtained: average monthly wind speed, average monthly wave height, monthly and annual maximums of wave speed and height, frequency of various gradations of wind speed and wave height, in directions, etc. Also there was done the analysis of the frequency of wave heights and wind speeds, which reached the criterion of unfavorable and dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena. The periods of stable positive (1954-1983) and negative (1984-2018) values of anomalies of mean monthly (maximum) wave heights in all seasons and months were identified in the article according to observations at the hydrometeorological station on the Cape Chersonese.

Keywords: regional climate, frequency of storms, periodic variability, wave-dangerous directions, storm activity, southwest Crimea, Black Sea coast.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Landscape structure of small waterfalls in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic nutricline-fissure genesis

K.G. Jangurazov, the Center of Study, Use and Protection of Water Resources of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, the Federal Agency of Water Resources (Rosvodresursy)

Small waterfalls play an important role in the formation and development of landscape structures and channel features (hydrological, hydrogeological, environmental) of the adjacent natural-territorial complexes of natural environment of Kabardino-Balkaria. In recent years, there is planned involvement of a large number of waterfalls of different genesis in the recreational activity of the Republic. It led to growth the anthropogenic pressure on the waterfall area. To assess the impact of all these processes on the lithogenic basis of a landscape the adjacent territory it is necessary to study the functioning of small waterfalls, including their genesis, form, expiry and duration of the flow, the phase state of flow, the characteristics of classification and zoning. In this paper, the small waterfalls nutricline fractured genesis. There is identified landscape structure of the bed, «giant pot» waterfalls of the genesis, as a waterfall system and dangerous phenomenon in winter.

Keywords: waterfall, small waterfall, genesis, phase state, water flow, intracavity fissure, recreational significance.

 

Environmental Protection

State environmental expertise: the formation, state and development prospects

N.G. Rybalsky, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University, the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», the Russian Ecological Academy, Yu.I. Shmeleva, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article traces more than a 30-year path of the foundation, formation and development of the institute of state environmental impact assessment in Russia and the environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure. An analysis of the current situation with state environmental expertise is given. Problems of this expertise and ways of improving environmental impact assessment in the country are considered.

Keywords: environmental impact, environmental impact assessment (EIA), state environmental expertise, public environmental impact assessment.

 

Cartography

Algae in the regional Red books of the Russian federation

A.A. Prisyazhnaya, Can.Sc. (Biology), S.A. Kruglova, V.R. Khrisanov, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), V.V. Snakin, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems (RAS)

The regional lists of rare and threatened species were analyzed in the article. It was revealed that of 265 species of algae listed in the regional Red Books of the Russian, 18.1% are Cyanobacteria, 24.5% are Rhodophyta, 22.3% – Charophyta, 10.9% – Chlorophyta, 12.5% – Phaeophyceae, 1.5% – Xanthophyceae, 1.1% – Chrysophyceae, 8.7% – Bacillariophyta and 0.4% are Haptophyta. The species richness of algae protected at the regional level in the subjects of the Russian Federation has been estimated. Non-uniformity is demonstrated, both in terms of quantitative composition and spatial distribution of species of algae protected at the regional level in Russia. It was revealed that the algae are included in the regional lists of protected species in only 35 subjects of the Russian Federation; in 50 subjects rare and threatened species of algae are not identified. The problems associated with the compilation of red lists of algae.

Keywords: algae, species diversity, lists of rare and threatened species, regional Red Books, ecological mapping.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

Anniversaries

On the 80th anniversary of Yu.S. Tsaturov

On the 70th anniversary of V.G. Blinov

 

International Cooperation

Water industry: the experience of foreign cooperation (The continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 3, 2018)

S.M. Golubev, Can.Sc. (Geology), the All-Russian Public Organization «Russian Union of Hydrogeologists», V.A. Omelyanenko, NIA-Priroda

The article shows, on specific examples, the results of many years of fruitful cooperation between the USSR and the developing countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America in the second half of the twentieth century in the use of water resources and water industry construction. The experience of Russian industrial and scientific water organizations can be used to overcome the acute shortage of fresh water in many countries of the world. To restore cooperation with foreign countries in the sphere of water management Russian organizations need state support.

Keywords: economic cooperation, water resources, water industry construction, hydropower facilities, irrigation system, water supply, water well drilling, underground water reserves.

 

International law of environmental protection specifications

V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Research Centre «Agroprognoz», N.N. Rybalskiy, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Soil Geography Department, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article provides the aspects of the formation of an international environmental law. There are studied international environmental organizations and analyzed their activities. There is made a review of the UN system and other international legal institutions related to environmental protection. The features of the conceptual framework in the international environmental law there are highlighted too. Also there are analyzed the legal sources of international econorms and highlighted core ecolaw documents. There are provided the main features of the international ecolaw, which obstruct the creation of an effective New World Eco-Order.

Keywords: ecology, legislation, law, protection of nature, environment, natural environment, environmental organizations, UN, environmental law, ecolaw, econorm, soft law, hard law, eco-order.

 

Regional Events

Ways to solve the problem of rational nature management in the Kemerovo area

O.A. Ryazanova, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the Department of Management and Business Technologies, Yu.N. Kleshchevsky, Prof.- Dr.Sc. (Economy), the Director, the Kemerovo Institute (branch) of the Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics

The article discusses environmental issues related to solving the problem of environmental management in terms of returning to the state forest fund of lands that have experienced technogenic impact, through forest reclamation of dumps of disturbed lands and creating artificial multifunctional ecosystems on them using phyto-meliorant plants (sea buckthorn, pine and etc.). The data on the dynamics of areas of disturbed and restored (reclaimed) land in the Kemerovo Area (Region) for the period from 2013 to 2017 are presented too. The main ways of solving environmental problems in the region are substantiated.

Keywords: Kemerovo Area (Region), environment (nature) management, disturbed land, recultivation, forest reclamation, phyto-meliorant plants.

 

Human Society and Nature

Hydrotechnical structures of Russia as architectural objects

E.S. Argal, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), L.N. Ryzhankova, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Russian University of Friendship of Peoples

The special features of the architecture of the domestic water-engineering constructions, which work under various pressures, are examined. Also there is analyzed connection of hydraulic construction with the surrounding space. The need for examining such construction not only as technical objects, but also as the objects of the artistic perception is shown.

Keywords: hydraulic (water-engineering) constructions, environment, the architectural special features, artistic perception.

 

Calendar of Events

On the results of the conference «The current state of black soil», dedicated to the 140-th anniversary of S.А. Zakharov

O.S. Bezuglova, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), O.G. Nazarenko, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology)

 

Bookshelf

About the fundamental monograph on the biology of the central caucasian tour and its author

V.A. Chereshnev, the Chairman, the State Duma Committee on Science and High Technologies, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS)

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