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2018 / 3

NATURE

 

Common Problems of Nature Management

Correct Use of Statistical Indicators as a Basis for Effective Management of Environmental Protection

A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc. (Econom.), N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

This article analyzes the correctness of the use of statistical indicators characterizing the environmental protection and environmental management at the level of higher public administration, mass media, etc. There are investigated the professionalism of operating environmental protection and natural resources statistics. A number of serious errors and confusion in the interpretation of the relevant information are given. Potential causes and factors of these negative phenomena are indicated; their potential consequences are considered too. There are defined main ways and methods to eliminate unqualified approaches.

Keywords: statistical indicators, statistical information, professionalism, data use, errors, reasons of errors, increasing responsibility.

 

Mineral Resources

Mineral Resources, Endogenous Activity and Evolution of the Earth (The continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 2, 2018)

S.V. Belov, Dr.Sc. (Geologic.), LLC «OZGEO»

Based on the analysis of world databases, the features of the manifestation of mineral deposits, magmatism and tectogenesis are considered in time. A conclusion is drawn about the negentropic character of the Earth’s development and its energetic feeding from the outside due to the energy of the Sun. The helio-bio-geological concept of the Earth’s development is grounded.

Keywords: mineral resources, manifestations of mineral deposits, endogenous activity, evolution of the Earth, helio-bio-geological concept.

 

Mineral Deposit of the Tomtor in Northwest Yakutia (Geoecological and Geotechnical Conditions)

M.N. Zheleznyak, Dc.Sc. (Geologic.), I.E. Misailov, M.M. Shatz, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Permafrost Institute, the Siberian Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

There are described ecologic-geocryological and geotechnical conditions of the Tomtor deposit – the unique reserves of rare elements in the North of Siberia. Also there are considered problems of the current stage of development and the main ways to solve them. The deposit has an unfavorable geographic location, but extremely high contents of rare earth metals in its ores cause unconditional economic efficiency of its development. New data on the results of geocryological investigations of the Permafrost Institute named after P.I. Melnikov (the Siberian Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences) 2016-2017 are done too.

Keywords: Tomtor deposit, ecological and geocryological conditions, concentration and resources of new types of ores; mining problems.

 

Water Resources

Investigation of the Operation Modes of the Belgorodsk Reservoir in Conditions of Various Water Resources

A.E. Kosolapov, Prof.-Dc.Sc. (Engineer.), T.A. Kalimanov, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), I.V. Korzhov, M.I. Laguta, the Russian Information-Analytical and Research Water Management Center, the Federal Agency of Water Resources (Rosvodresursy)

The results of studies of the operating modes of the Belgorod Reservoir under different water conditions are considered. Modeling of the operation modes was carried out on the basis of the constructed dispatching schedule of seasonal flow regulation for the calendar series of the restored flow and the artificial 1000-year hydrological series modeled on its basis. Also the evaluation of the characteristics of the regimes was carried out according to the results of modeling for the groups of high-water, medium, medium-water and low-water years, selected from the calendar series of the restored flow in the dam of the hydroelectric complex. An assessment was made of the impact of the lead-in time for the flow forecast to change the indicators of the reservoir regime, the degree of transformation of the maximum inflow water resources.

Keywords: (water) reservoir, dispatching schedule, dispatcher zones, provision of returns, returns from the reservoir, reservoir operation mode, low-water periods, flow hydrograph, elements of the flood hydrograph, flood forecast.

 

Land Resources and Soils

Climate Control Potential of Soils of Russian Agricultural Land

V.S. Stolbovoi, Dr.Sc (Geograph.), I.Y. Savin, the Member-Correspondent, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Dr.Sc (Agricult.), the Soil Institute nam. аft. V.V. Dokuchaev

The use of carbon-saving technologies in agricultural production has a double benefit, acting as a condition for the sustainable development of agriculture and a means of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. The climate-regulating potential of the soils of agricultural land in Russia is about 2.2 GtC, which is almost 8808 million tons of CO2-eq, or three annual cumulative greenhouse gas emissions of the country.

Keywords: carbon-saving technologies, climate-regulating potential of soils, agricultural production, sustainable development, greenhouse gas emissions.

 

Forest Resources

Challenges of the Russian Forest Sector and Proposals for Overcoming the Crisis

E.A. Shvarts, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), N.M. Shmatkov, K.N. Kobyakov, WWF-Russia, A.V. Rodionov, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Department of Agricultural Production Mechanization, the Petrozavodsk State University, A.Y. Yaroshenko, Can.Sc. (Biology), Greenpeace Russia

The article overviews the current state and the main challenges of the Russian forest sector, including simulation of successful reforestation, lack of available timber resources for the forest industry, as well as the negative impact of this crisis on the state of ecologically valuable forests and biodiversity. The authors analyze the causes of the crisis in the forest sector, including conscious overestimation of annual allowable cut volume, lack of necessary thinning in young stands, and low information transparency of the forest sector. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the so-called «intensive» forest management model based on the sustainability principles and involving competent reforestation, thinning in young stands, commercial thinning and final cutting as underutilized potential to cope with the crisis of timber resources procurement. The article includes specific recommendations for the decision makers to contribute solving the main problems of the sector, optimization of existing processes and regulatory framework.

Keywords: forestry, forest resources, reforestation, forest supply, state of forests, calculated cutting area, care for young forest.

 

Biodiversity

Transformation of the Plant Cover in «Dead» Pockets of Deflation in the Chernozemelskiy Pastures of the Kalmykia over a 30-year period

L.P. Rybashlykova, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), the Federal Research Centre of Agroecology, Amelioration and Protective Afforestation, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), A.K. Kladiev, L.P. Radochinskaya, the Kalmyk Research Agroforestry Experimental Station, the Branch of the Federal Scientific Center of Agroecology, Integrated Melioration and Protective Afforestation, RAS

The current state of flora and vegetation in the «extinct» centers of deflation in the Chernozemel pastures of the Republic of Kalmykia is considered. It is noted that phytomelioration flora of pastures is characterized by high species diversity and significantly different from the flora of surrounding areas. Different ratios of ecological groups in the structure of plant communities are given. The causes and consequences of the transformation of vegetation cover in the changing environmental conditions of the region are analyzed too.

Keywords: flora, vegetation, biodiversity, ecological spectrum, deflation, pasture, phytomelioration.

 

Dangerous Introduce: the Heracl um Sosn wskyi Manden

T.P. Sadovnikova, Can,Sc. (Biology), T.D. Ulyankina, the Project «Ekozara», V.V. Snakin, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Fundamental Problems of Biology, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Moscow State University

The ecological aspects of the invasion of the Heracl um Sosn wskyi Manden (Borsthevik Sosnovskogo) in the European part of Russia as a result of unsuccessful introduction into agricultural production (phytocenotic features of the species, climatic preferences, anthropogenic prerequisites for settlement) are considered. Also there are shown both the negative features of the species and the possible biotechnological prospects for its use. The methods for fighting invasion of the Borsthevik Sosnovskogo are given, as well as the author’s method of species elimination with examples of specific applications.

Keywords: invasion, introduction, Borsthevik Sosnovskogo (Heracl um Sosn wskyi Manden.), methods of combating invasion, prospects for use.

 

Biological Resources of Land

The Effects of Oil and Gas Production in the Steppe Zone on the Abundance of Several Mammal Species (on an Example of the Orenburg Urals)

E.V. Barbazyuk, Can,Sc. (Biology), K.V. Miachina, Can,Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Steppe, the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The data on the number of four species of mammals collected in the steppe oil and gas territory of the Orenburg Urals are analyzed. Significant differences in the average number of Siberian roe deer and hare in districts with strong and weak transformation of landscapes resulting from the exploitation of oil and gas fields are revealed. A significant negative correlation was found between the density of the road network and the number of marmots in the regions with oil and gas infrastructure. It is shown that long-term population dynamics is determined both by the impact of oil and gas production, and by the action of more global factors, such as climate change.

Keywords: steppe zone, oil and gas production, transformation of landscapes, abundance of mammals, dynamics, the correlation.

 

Water Biological Resources

Production and Trophic Role of Phytoplankton of Difference Size: Contribution to Primary Productivity and Water Quality Formation

A.P. Sadchikov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), S.A.Ostroumov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), S.V. Kotelevtsev, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University

In waters of different trophic level, the production of groups of phytoplankton of different sizes was determined. In the mesotrophic Mozhaisk Reservoir, eutrophic and hypertrophic ponds, the algae of the size group, up to 50 μm in size, averaged 40, 60 and 90% of the total biomass of phytoplankton. The algae of the small size (up to 20 μm) synthesized up to 20-65% of total production of organic matter, in spite of the small biomass of this fraction of algae. The biomass of this fraction (phytoplankton withthe size less than 20 μm) in the reservoir and eutrophic pond was only 2-4% of the total biomass of phytoplankton.

Keywords: phytoplankton production, radiocarbon method, nannoplankton, net plankton, zooplankton.

 

Climatic Resources

Scheme of Calculation Resources of River Waters of Primagadanie in Conditions in Changing Climate

M.V. Ushakov, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the North-East Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Institute, the Far East Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

It has been established that an increase in the average annual air temperature and the amount of atmospheric precipitation that has occurred over the past decades has caused an increase in annual river runoff within the city of Magadan and its environs by 10-27%. Using the example of the Dukcha River, a scheme has been developed for determining the annual runoff of different probability of exceeding the average annual air temperature for different scenarios.

Keywords: annual runoff module, trend, climate, air temperature, curve of the probability of exceeding.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

The Economic Use or Protection: Pros and Cons Summary (on the Example Analysis of the Unique Reed Mire near Tomsk)

N.M. Semenova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Tomsk State University

The article deals with the issues of protection of the wetlands located in different natural and economic conditions of the Western Siberia. The main focus is on the preservation and wise use of the peatlands in the southern part of this region, which was greatly altered and transformed during the long-term economic development. The field research was conducted in the southern suburbs of Tomsk. A unique peatland, which is an object of a special protection effort, was described in this article. The peatland develops in the conditions of a rich groundwater feed. The peatland deposits are a mixture of peat and travertine. The composition of the mire waters and feeding springs was studied. Also there were analyzed the flora and vegetation of the study area. A list of rare and endangered plant species was compiled. The ecological and social value of the investigated territory was substantiated too. Pertinent measures on protection of the natural landscape and wise use of its resources were defined.

Keywords: springs, peatlands, travertine, specially protected natural areas, Western Siberia.

 

Environmental Protection

Migration of Heavy Metals in the River Basins and its Determinants

B.I. Korzhenevskiy, the All-Russian Research Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation

The paper considers the conditions, factors and evolution of objects that are sources of pollution of water basins with heavy met als; the types of technogenic pressure that define the structure of the heavy metals reception on the slopes and paths of migration, current accumulation and final accumulation in the aquatic sediments; energy factors defining possible zones for temporary storage of heavy metals and zones of their final accumulation. There are done ranking produced by time, area, energy, and other determinants of pollution/prevention of pollution of the territory by heavy metals.

Keywords: pollution, water objects, bottom sediments, heavy metals, migration, energy factors of migration, potential barriers, technogenic pressure.

 

Cartography

Assessment of the Economic Potential and Ecological State of a Specially Protected Natural Area on the Basis of Functional Zoning Data

I.A. Khabarova, D.A. Khabarov, S.S. Druchinin, the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography

The authors studied and analyzed the results of landscape, construction zoning, as well as the regulatory and legal framework regulating the status and setting the corresponding functional areas for this specially protected natural area, on the basis of which the zoning of a specially protected natural area of the nature-historical park «Bitsevsky Forest». The evaluation of the quality of functional zones on the level of environmental safety was identified.

Keywords: zoning, functional zones, ecological potential, specially protected natural territory, natural-historical park «Bitsevsky Forest».

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

International Cooperation

Water Industry: the Experience of Foreign Cooperation

S.M. Golubev, Can.Sc. (Geology), the All-Russian Public Organization «Russian Union of Hydrogeologists», V.A. Omelyanenko, NIA-Priroda

The article shows, on specific examples, the results of many years of fruitful cooperation between the USSR and the developing countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America in the second half of the twentieth century in the use of water resources and water industry construction. The experience of Russian industrial and scientific water organizations can be used to overcome the acute shortage of fresh water in many countries of the world. To restore cooperation with foreign countries in the sphere of water management Russian organizations need state support.

Keywords: economic cooperation, water resources, water industry construction, hydropower facilities, irrigation system, water supply, water well drilling, underground water reserves.

 

Realization of the International Experience of the «Green Economy» Principles in the Forestry Sector

A.I. Pisarenko, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the Russian Society of Foresters, V.V. Strakhov, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the All-Russian Research Institute for Forestry and Mechanization (VNIILM), the Federal Agency on Forestry

The article examines the European experience to promote forestry and the global forest sector to implement the UN concept for the development of «green economy». The report of the UNEP «Green Economy» was analyzed, as well as the green economy documents developed as a result of FAO and UN ECE cooperation in the field of forestry, based on the adopted by the European Forestry Ministers the «Rovaniemi Action Plan».

Keywords: «green economy», forestry, international cooperation, role and importance of forests.

 

Human Society and Nature

Planetary Project as Basis for Formation of the New Agenda of World Development

S.A. Ivanov, Dr.Sc. (Econome), the St. Petersburg State University

In article the concept of sustainable development as new philosophy and model of the organization of life of society is investigated. The special relevance of implementation of this concept for Russia is emphasized. There are shown the importance and problems of measurement of sustainable development. «The planetary project» as new approach to ensuring sustainable development of the countries, regions within which the «sciences school» of the solution of fundamental problems of rescue of the biosphere, solutions of global problems of mankind is formed is submitted too.

Keywords: sustainable development, Organization of United Nations (OUN), nature, planetary project, human potential, ecology, biosphere, measurement, indicators, model.

 

Belated Experience of Environmental Expertise of the Global Plans for the Transformation of Nature in Russia

G.S. Rozenberg, the Member-Correspondent, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Prof.-Dr.Sc (Biology), S.V. Saksonov, Prof.-Dr.Sc (Biology), S.A. Senator, Can.Sc (Biology), the Institute of Ecology of the Volga Basin, RAS

IIn the article the authors discuss some of the most well-known global plans (programs) for the transformation of nature that have had a significant impact on natural environment in Russia – the «Stalin's plan for the transformation of nature», the federal programs «Revival of the Volga river» and «Improvement of the Volga river», «May decrees» 2018 by President of Russia V.V. Putin, etc. Also authors illustrates both positive and negative consequences for the environment of such global programs.

Keywords: plans for the transformation of nature, «Revival of the Volga river», «Improvement of the Volga river», environmental consequences.

 

Calendar of Events

The Conference on Global Environmental Problems, dedicated to the 155th anniversary of V.I. Vernadsky

Within the Fourth international professional forum «Book. Culture. Education. Innovations» («Crimea-2018») held an international conference on global environmental problems, dedicated to the 155th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky, organized jointly by the State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Russian Federation and the Non-Governmental Environmental Fund nam. aft. V.I. Vernadsky.

 

Bookshelf

Solovianov A.A. The History of the Development of Environmental Authorities in the Russian Federation. – Moscow: Theory, 2017. – 416 p.

Bezgodov A.V., Barejev K.V. The Beginning of Planetary Ethics in the Philosophy of Russian Cosmism. – SPb.: Piter, 2018. – 544 p.

 

Бюллетень

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