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2018 / 2

NATURE

 

Common Problems of Nature Management

Peat Resources of Russia and their Use

L.I. Inisheva, the Member-Corresp., the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Agriculth.), the Director of Agroecology Laboratory, E.V. Porohina, Cand. Sc. (Biology), the Assistant professor, the Tomsk State Pedagogical University

Currently, Russia occupies first place in the world for the area of wetlands and peat resources. Mires can huge reserves of fresh water, store carbon, essentially determine water and hydrological regimes of the territory, influencing the climate of the biosphere. However, in Russia the common approach in the directions of their rational use is absent. In the basis for sustainable management of peat resources the authors propose the ecological and economic founds, allowing to develop scenarios of complex use of peat resources with regard to their ecological significance as part of the biosphere.

Keywords: mire, peat resources, rational use, ecological-economic funds.

 

Mineral Resources

Mineral Resources, Endogenous Activity and Evolution of the Earth

S.V. Belov, Dr.Sc. (Geologic.), LLC «OZGEO»

Based on the analysis of world databases, the features of the manifestation of mineral deposits, magmatism and tectogenesis are considered in time. A conclusion is drawn about the negentropic character of the Earth’s development and its energetic feeding from the outside due to the energy of the Sun. The helio-bio-geological concept of the Earth’s development is grounded.

Keywords: mineral resources, manifestations of mineral deposits, endogenous activity, evolution of the Earth, helio-bio-geo­logical concept.

 

On Attracting Foreign Investment in Rare Metal Industry in Russia: SWOT Analysis (The continuation of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 1, 2018)

Yu.A. Bobylov, Can.Sc. (Econom.), the Non-Commercial Partnership (NP) «Russian Council for International Affairs»

Rare metals are characterized by their absent-mindedness in ore deposits. Innovation and industrial policy of Russia in relation to rare metals requires clarification of priorities and better strategic marketing. The article describes the Canadian experience with foreign investment. The analysis shows the growing interest of foreign investors to the development of the world’s major deposits of rare metals. Foreign investment can go into the rare metal industry with the introduction of privileges and preferences. There are done organizational recommendations for government and business.

Keywords: ore deposits, fields, rare metals, industry, global market, foreign investments.

 

Water Resources

Management of the quantity and quality of water of the Moscow river to improve its ecological status

V.I. Klepov, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University”, Moscow I.V. Ragulina, Regional state budgetary institution of additional professional education “Kursk Institute of Education Development”, Kursk

In accordance with the Water strategy of Russia until 2020, the need to improve the ecological status of water resources in river ba­sins is determined. The processes of interrelation between quantity and quality of water resources in these basins are very important in the management of water resource systems (WRS). One of such VRS consisting of several reservoirs is VRS of the Moscow region. This system is intended for sustainable water supply of one of the largest economic, cultural and scientific centers in Russia. The Moskvoretsky water system (MVS) formed on the basis of the basin of the river of Moscow is an integral part of this water resource system.

Keywords: hydrology, river flow, reservoirs, river flow regulation, deficit of guaranteed water supply, quality of water resources.

 

Land Resources and Soils

Legal Support of State Cadastre Evaluation at the Present Stage

O.V. Miklashevskaya, the Associate professor, N.V. Beloborodova, A.P. Sizov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Head, the Department of Cadastre and Foundations of Land Law, the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

Currently, due to the interlinked application of standards of Federal Law of July 29, 1998 № 135-FZ «On Appraisal Activities in the Russian Federation» and Federal Law of 03.07.2016 № 237-FZ «On State Cadastral Assessment» there is a necessity to consider the legal features of the procedure for state cadastral valuation (GKO) of real estate.

Keywords: cadastral value, market value, state cadastral valuation, the tax base, real estate object, moratorium, state cadastral appraiser.

 

Topicality and Environmental Risks of the Use of Selenium Fertilizers Topicality and Environmental Risks of the Use of Selenium Fertilizers

A.P. Kiryushina, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Laboratory of Soils Ecological Functions, the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

A brief analysis of the selenium status of soils and problems caused by selenium deficiency in foodstuffs focuses attention on the risks associated with various methods of enriching agricultural products and the use of selenium fertilizers in accordance with the modern methods of enrichment of this important element for all living systems. It is noted that the use of selenium fertilizers in lands with selenium deficiency in soils requires an increased attention to the safety of the consequences of such technological meth­ods for the environment. The necessity of annual monitoring of the state of soil, water and air environments during the introduction of selenium fertilizers into the soil of agricultural lands or when processing green mass of plants is emphasized.

Keywords: rational use of soil resources, healthy diet, selenium-deficient soils, selenium fertilizers, ecomonitoring.

 

Forest Resources

Nectar Bearing of Forest Plantations with Dead Stands120

A.V. Krivtsova, the Executive director, LTD «Eco Region Lab», A.M. Sharygin, Cand.Sc. (Agricult.), LTD «Zdorovy Les»

The article presents an analysis of the nectar bearing of phytocenoses of dead forest stands (windfall, windbreak, infection with phytopathogens, impact of entomofacers) in order to identify the possibility of using them in honey flow in the example of the conifer­ous-broad-leaved subzone. It is established that a rich honey flow can provide only areas of windbreaks in coniferous plantations.

Keywords: dead forest stands, windfall, windbreak, isolated area of the pine fungus, isolated area of the eight-dentated bark beetle, nectar bearing, honey flow.

 

Biodiversity

The Current State of Tsenopopulyation of Species of Sort Inula in the Territory of Kabardino-Balkar Republic

A.Ya. Tamakhina, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), Zh.R. Lokyaeva, Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University nam. V.M. Kokov

Results of studying of the current state of tsenopopulyation and a specific variety of the sort (genus) Inula in the territory of Kabardino-Balkar Republic are given in work. It is established that in the resource relation are of the greatest practical interest Inula helenium L., I. orientalis L., I. britannica L., I. germanica L. The factors limiting areas are considered and the quantitative characteristics of a condition of tsenopopulyation of types are submitted. Measures for protection, reproduction and rational use of resource potential of the sort (genus) Inula are proposed.

Keywords: Inula, plant resources, area, tsenopopulyation, the Kabardino-Balkar Republic.

 

Biological Resources of Land

Ecological Analysis of the Meadow Flora of Forest-Steppe on South Non-chernozem Zone with a Change in Anthropogenic Load

A.V. Koshkin, A.N. Nikolskiy, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), Assocciate Professor, D.V. Bochkarev, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), N.V. Smolin, Prof.-D.Sc. (Agricult.), V.D. Bochkarev, the Mordovia National Research State University

The dynamics of ecological groups of meadow species is considered in the article with the change of anthropogenic impact in the XX-begining XXI century. A change in the ratio of the groups of plant life forms of the phytocenoses studied, an increase in the propor­tion of the terophytes that are not characteristic of meadow plant communities is established. The change in environmental conditions associated with climate warming in the last three decades has contributed to an increase in the proportion of xeromesophytes in the formation of a variety of meadow vegetation. In the absence of anthropogenic impact in modern conditions, the heliomorphic and trophomorphic composition of the meadows underwent significant changes. The species spectrum of oligotrophs and megatrophs has considerably expanded. There is increased species representation of shade-tolerant plants.

Keywords: meadows, life forms of plants, ecological groups of plants, dynamics.

 

Water Biological Resources

Developing Scientific Basis for Management of Water Quality in Aquatic Bodies. Biomanipulation and Role of Plankton

A.P. Sadchikov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), S.A. Ostroumov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Biological Faculty, the Moscow State University

An analysis of studies on the effects of zooplankton filter-feeders on the development of algae has been carried out. The results of studying prospects for restoring the water quality using biomanipulation of the food chain are presented. The results of research on the influence of carnivorous fish and planktivorous fish on the structure of zooplankton, phytoplankton, algal blooms, water transparency and hydrochemical indicators of water quality are analyzed too. It is shown that the regulation of the abundance of hydrobionts (aquatic organisms) allows to develop a useful approach toward solving important environmental problems and toward approaching goals of sustainable use of water bodies and streams.

Keywords: water quality, planktivorous fish, carnivorous fish, algal blooms, phytoplankton, biomanipulation, ichthyofauna, zoo­plankton, abundance of aquatic organisms, hydrobionts, eutrophication, cyanobacteria.

 

Climatic Resources

Multi-year Developments of Moisture-Temperature Regime in the South Taiga Zone of the European Part of Russia (Basin of the Upper Volga)

J.V. Kuzmina, D.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Water Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), S.E. Treshkin, D.Sc. (Agricult.), the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations

For the Upper Volga basin, the long-term annual, semi-annual and seasonal dynamics of the moisture-temperature regime were analyzed on the basis of an analysis of the cumulative effect of changes in air temperature and atmospheric precipitation over their long-term trends (for 54-136 years, through 2014) on the basis of daily observations 8 meteorological stations of WMO (Maksatiha, Staritsa, Tver, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Kostroma, Moscow, Mojaisk, Kolomna). The main long-term climate changes in the Upper Volga basin have been identified.

Keywords: mean air temperature, total atmospheric precipitation, Pedia drought index 1, modified Pedia drought index2, climatic changes.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Geological Monuments of Nature – Potential Reserve for the Development of Regions

S.T. Remizova, Dr.Sc. (Geology), the Herzen State Pedagogical University

The article discusses the functions of geological monuments of nature in relation to modern society. On the example of specific re­gional objects of geological heritage of the Leningrad region the question of their potential importance for the development of the region and the necessary measures in terms of intensification of their functioning is considered.

Keywords: specially protected natural areas, geological monuments of nature, geological heritage sites, functions of geological heritage sites.121

 

Environmental Protection

The State of the Environment of Russia

N.G. Rybalsky, Dr. Sc. (Biology), A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc. (Econom.), E.V. Muravieva, D.A. Boriskin, the National Information Agency «Natural Resources» (NIA-Priroda)

The article gives an analysis of the state of the main elements of the natural environment in our country, the available positive achieve­ments in the field of environmental protection and the rationalization of nature management, as well as the remaining shortcomings and unfavorable trends.

Keywords: environmental (natural) environment, nature use, natural resources, State report, negative impact on the environment, the state of individual environmental components, environmental protection, nature conservation activities, environmental indicators.

 

Geodesy and Cartography

Abnormal Low Snow Cover, Dust and Snow Storm in the Zavolzhsko-Uralsky Region in the Winter 2017-2018 (conditions of formation and potential consequences)

V.M. Pavleychik, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Head of the Department, Yu.A. Padalko, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Steppe, the Ural Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The conditions for the formation of anomalous natural phenomena - low snow and dust-snow storm, observed in the Zavolzhsko- Uralsky region in the winter period 2017-2018 are considered. Based on the analysis of Terra MODIS satellite imagery and expedition survey, the leading factors in the development of wind erosion have been identified.

Keywords: low snow cover, dust and snow storm, Zavolzhsko-Uralsky region, wind erosion, agriculture, burn area, Terra MODIS space images.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

Anniversaries

Global Problems of Sustainable Development: to the 155th Anniversary of the Birth of V.I. Vernadsky

V.A. Grachev, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Member-Corresp., the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Non-Governmental Environmental Foundation nam. V.I. Vernadsky, the Russian Environmental Academy

Based on the analysis of the creative heritage of V.I. Vernadsky in the sphere of global processes, it is shown that his theory of the three components of economic development (labor, capital and creativity) is fundamental in the modern development of mankind. Analy­sis of the links between global problems of sustainable development in the economy, the environment and the social sphere concluded that the world can destroy not global warming, but global fraud of speculative capital, the desire of economic elites to profit on the problem of global processes in the climate. It is shown that the scientific works of V.I. Vernadsky is closely linked to the UN’s Sustain­able Development Goals. It is noted that the creative heritage of V.I. Vernadsky points out the correct way to solve global problems of sustainable development: creative thought, supplementing global natural balances based on homeostasis; Noospheric balances based on the Universal Mind.

Keywords: V.I. Vernadsky, sustainable development, the role of NTP in development, global processes.

 

Regional Events

Radioecological Monitoring of the Moscow Region

K.F. Tseitin, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Honored Ecologist of Russia, A.G. Ptashkin, Can.Sc. (Chemist.), the FSUE «RADON», T.G. Putina, Can.Sc. (Veterinar.), the Associate professor, the MGU Food Production, S.G. Drukovskiy, Can. Sc. (Veterinar.), The Associate professor, the Department of Veterinary Medicine, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

A description of the main features of the Moscow region as an object of radiation and environmental monitoring is presented. The main directions of activities to ensure radiation safety of the city are given, including a comprehensive system for managing the radia­tion environment of Moscow and the Moscow Region, as well as the main directions for the development of the radiation safety system.

Keywords: radioecological monitoring, radiation safety, Moscow region, radioactive sources, radioactive contamination, radiation control.

 

Human Society and Nature

From Social Ecology and Sociology of Education to Geopolitical Problems of the 21st century: on the 85th Anniversary of the Birth of Danilo Zh. Markovic

S.A. Stepanov, Dc.Sc. (Pedagog.), the Academy of MNEPU (the International Independent University of Environmental and Political Sciences)

In article considers the scientific contribution of the outstanding Serbian scientist, political and public figure D.Zh. Markovich in the social ecology, sociology of education for sustainable development, in the theory of ecopolitology and globalistics in the context of geopolitical changes in the early 21st century. Criteria for the effectiveness of environmental policy formulated by the scientist are relevant for Russian researchers. An evaluation of his activity on the development of scientific and educational contacts between Russian and Yugoslav/Serbian higher educational institutions during his years at a high diplomatic post in Moscow is given.

Keywords: social ecology, sociology of education, labor and environment protection, natural resources, sustainable development, globalization.

 

Calendar of Events

Practical Geography and Challenges of the XXI century

From 4 to 6 June, 2018 the Conference of the International Geographical Union «Practical Geography and Challenges of the 21st Century» was held at the House of Scientists and the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Institute of Geography RAS.

 

Bookshelf

Bezgodov A.V. Planetary Rent as a Tool for Solving Global Problems. – SPb .: Piter, 2018. – 512 p.

Bezgodov A.V. Planetary Project: from Sustainable Development to Controlled Harmony. – SPb.: Piter, 2018. – 272 p.

 

 

Бюллетень

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