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2018 / 1

NATURE

 

Common Problems of Nature Management

Soil Сover in the Value of Natural Resources

V.V. Snakin, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), A.A. Prisyazhnaya, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, RAS

The problem of valuation of national wealth, natural resources and, in particular, land is considered. There is a huge difference in the estimates of the value of natural resources in Russia and in the world, due to the lack of development of common approaches. Different estimates of the value of land and soil in the structure of natural resources are given. There are analyzed the possible reasons for the weak connection between the market value of the land and its fertility and the ambiguity in the valuation of soils (soil cover).

Keywords: national wealth, natural capital, value of natural resources, soil cover, market value of land.

 

Mineral Resources

On Attracting Foreign Investment in Rare Metal Industry in Russia: SWOT Analysis

Yu.A. Bobylov, Can.Sc. (Econom.), Non-Commercial Partnership (NP) «Russian Council for International Affairs»

Rare metals are characterized by their absent-mindedness in ore deposits. Innovation and industrial policy of Russia in relation to rare metals requires clarification of priorities and better strategic marketing. Describes the Canadian experience with foreign investment. The analysis shows the growing interest of foreign investors to the development of the world’s major deposits of rare metals. Foreign investment can go into the rare metal industry with the introduction of privileges and preferences. There are done organizational recommendations for government and business.

Keywords: ore deposits, fields, rare metals, industry, global market, foreign investments.

 

Water Resources

Water Resources of Russia: the Problems of Management

Yu.G. Bogomolov, Can.Sc. (Geology), the Chairman, S.M. Golubev, Can.Sc. (Geology), the First Deputy Chairman, V.F. Ladygin, the Adviser, the Board of the Public Organization «Russian Union of Hydrogeologists» (RosGidroGeo)

In the article there is done substantiation of necessity and expediency of allocation of the unified state structure of management of the water resources of Russia with the assignment to it of full legislative and legal responsibility for integrated, efficient and safe supply of water the branches of economy and social sphere of the country, taking into account the requirements of the protection of water bodies.

Keywords: water fund, water bodies, water resources, efficient (integrated) water use, integrated management, decentralized management, water management and environmental measures.

 

Water Quality and Elemental Composition of Organic Matter During its Sedimentation in Water Bodies

A.P. Sadchikov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the International Biotechnology Center, S.V. Kotelevtsev, Dr.Sc. (Biology), S.N. Orlov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), S.A. Ostroumov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Faculty of Biology, the Moscow State University

The article deals with ecological issues related to the chemical composition of detritus in the water of the reservoir, which is a part of the water supply system of a large megacity, in connection with the issues of water quality formation. The new measurements of the chemical composition carried out in this study showed a decrease in the carbon and nitrogen content of detrital particles when they settle in the aqueous medium. The obtained results are the scientific interest for better understanding aquatic ecosystems and are of practical importance for revealing the regularities of water quality formation in freshwater ecosystems.

Keywords: biogenic detritus, carbon, nitrogen, water quality, sedimentation.

 

Land Resources and Soils

Cadastral Assessment of Agricultural Land in the Orenburg Region

P.M. Sapozhnikov, Dr.Sc. (Agricul.), V.I. Kuzmina, the Moscow State University, V.S. Stolbovoy, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), A.K. Ogleznev, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Dokuchaev Soil Institute

The authors of this article report the assessment indications for cadastral values of different types of agricultural lands in the Orenburg region. The range of cadastral values assessed is from 1800 rubles per hectare for saline soils to 88,800 rubles per hectare for leached black soils. For soils affected by washout erosions, the reduction in cadastral values reaches up to 60%, and for soils affected by washout and high salinity – up to 85%. For irrigated soils, the increase in their cadastral values can reach up to 60-100%.

Keywords: main types and subtypes of soils, Orenburg region, normative crop productivity, normative expenditures, market realization prices, specific indicators of the cadastral value for dry-farmed and irrigated land.

 

Forest Resources

Influence of Forest-taxation Indicators of Maternal Curtains on Restoration of Pine Forest of the South Urals

I.R. Mukhametdinov, Senior Researcher, ANO «Institute of Rational Nature Management» (c. Ufa), K.M. Gabdrakhimov, Dr.Sc. (Agricul.), the Professor of the Chair of Forestry and Landscape Design, E.R. Latipov, Post-graduate Student, the Chair of Forestry and Landscape Design, the Bashkir State University of Agriculture

Natural regeneration of the forest is considered as a self-renewal curve, which proceeds spontaneously in the forest, which obeys certain laws of nature. Renewal of forests should be considered in a biogeocenotic or ecosystem sense, that is, as a process associated with all components of the forest community.

Keywords: pine, renewal of forests, type of forest, completeness, composition of stand.

 

Biodiversity

Conservation of Biodiversity of Cultivated Plants in Cryogenic Storage Located in Permafrost Conditions

M.M. Shats, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute for Permafrost named P.I. Melnikov, the Siberian Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS)

The article presents an analysis of existing cryopreserves of seed material of cultivated plants under natural conditions of permafrost layers of rocks. It is shown that conservation of agro-biodiversity does not have the necessary coordination at the state interagency level and is not provided with sufficient financing. In the current situation it is proposed to organize cryolithozones in the regions of the cryolite storage network of the world gene pool of plants located in the layer of permafrost rocks.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation of cultivated plants, cryo-storage, collection of seed material, storage in permafrost.

 

Biological Resources of Land

Monitoring of the Population of the Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa L.) in the Voronezhsky State Nature Biosphere Reserve and the Influence on the Number of the Wild Boar by Natural Factors and Epizootic of the African Swine Fever (ASF)

A.S. Mishin, the Voronezhsky State Nature Biosphere Reserve named V.M. Peskov,

O.A. Manuylova, I.V. Bazilskaya, the Federal Centre for Animal Health (c. Vladimir)

Monitoring of the wild boar in the territory of the Voronezhsky reserve is carried out through winter track count, registration at feeding stations, registration of animal meetings and camera traps. Using of camera traps makes it possible to carry out monitoring during the snowless period, supplementing data on the number of animals with information on their behavior and physical state. Dynamics of wild boar in the reserve is a subject of the influence of snow regime and the harvest of acorns. The epizootic of the African swine fever, which arose in 2016 on the territory of the reserve, completely destroyed the local population of the wild boar. Recovery of the population began in a few months later. The first were passable animals, and the fixation of the first wild boars occurred 7 months after the end of the fall. In some areas with low quality for wild boar, they are absent for two years (to the present day).

Keywords: wild boar, dynamic of the number of the wild boar, monitoring, population density, camera traps, influence by natural factors on the wild boar’s population, African swine fever (ASF).

 

Climatic Resources

Approach to Balance between Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction and Adaptation to Climate Changes

A.O. Kokorin, Can. Sc. (Physic- Math.). WWF Russia

Global greenhouse gas emission dynamics and CO2 absorption are analyzed. Stable level by 2030 is probable. Enhanced emission reduction requires comparison of corresponding expenses with losses from climate changes and cost of adaptation measures. It demands long-term probability prognoses of extreme events and their dependence from emission reduction. Examples of such prognoses are already available.

Keywords: climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, adaptation, extreme temperature prognoses, Paris Agreement.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Evaluation of the Modern State of Rare Animals in the State Nature Reserve «Basegi» (Perm Region)

D.V. Naumkin, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Kungur Laboratory, the Mineral Institute, the Urals Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), N.M. Loskutova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the State Nature Reserve «Basegi», Ya.E. Kutuzov, the Perm State Agrarian and Technological University named Pryanishnikov

The results (for the period of 2013-2017) of observations of the condition of rare species of vertebrate animals on the territory of the «Basegi» reserve (Perm region) and its environs are presented. Rare species include those listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation with Annex III and the Red Data Book of the Perm region (mainly birds), and also rare for the strictly protected area (mainly mammals). The state of the latter is assessed on the basis of all available data for the entire lifetime of the reserve. For the first time, the results of an inventory of beaver settlements are presented, on the basis of which the beaver can now be considered an ordinary species of fauna. The main conclusion is that for most of the species described in the article the area of the reserve is insufficient in area, and the state of their populations is determined by factors acting outside its borders.

Keywords: reserve «Basegi», Red Book, rare species, abundance, distribution, population status.

 

Environmental Protection

Phytoremediation Ability of Agricultural Crops to Extract Heavy Metals from Landfills (in the Example «Salarievo» MSW Landfill)

L.V. Mosina, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), Yu.A. Jandrova, Postgraduate student, Department of Ecology, the Russian State Agricultural University-Moscow Agricultural Academy named by K.A.Timiryazev

In the article investigated phytoremediation ability of agricultural crops to extract heavy metals from municipal solid waste landfills «Salarievo». The results showed that the best ability to have phytoremediation plants: maize, sunflower, mustard, peas.

Keywords: phytoremediation capacity, agricultural crops, municipal solid waste (msw) landfills.

 

Analysis of Environmental Indicators of the Sustainable Development of the Crimea

E.I. Ignatov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Academician of the Russian Environmental Academy (REA), the Branch of the Moscow State University (in the city of Sevastopol), E.V. Yaseneva, Can. Sc. (Geograph.), the Corresponding Member of REA (the Crimea Branch), the, I.A. Yaseneva, the Moscow State University

The modern views of the ecological aspects of the sustainable development indicator component via example of the Crimea. As the result of the study the ranking of the territory of the Crimea by the selected indicators was performed.

Keywords: indicator, sustainable development, sources of pollution, the Crimea.

 

Geodesy and Cartography

Mapping of Rare and Threatened Species of Bryophytes

A.A. Prisyazhnaya, Can.Sc. (Biology), S.A. Kruglova, V.R. Khrisanov, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS),

V.V. Snakin, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, RAS

A new cartographic material on the distribution of bryophytes of all categories of rarity included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation is presented. Regions with the largest species concentration of rare bryophytes are identified – the south of Primorsky Krai, Southern Siberia and the Murmansk region. An estimation of the species diversity of all bryophytes within the boundaries of biomes was carried out. It is shown that the highest species diversity of bryophytes was recorded in the Kamchatka, Altai, Putoran and Anabar orobiomas, and also in the Kola-Karelian hypoarctic-taiga biome of the plains.

Keywords: bryophytes, species diversity, the Red Book of the Russian Federation, the IUCN Red List, lists of rare and threatened species, the categories of rare and threatened species.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

Anniversaries

90 years of Academician A.N. Kashtanov

On March 25, the 90th anniversary of the birth of a prominent scientist and scientific organizer, agronomist and agroecologist, one of the founders of adaptive landscape agriculture, Vice-President of the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, First Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the Chief Researcher of the Soil Institute named V.V. Dokuchaev, the Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, the laureate of the State Prize of the Russian Federation, the Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Alexander Nikolaevich Kashtanov.

 

International Cooperation

Organization of Scientific Research in Forestry in Finland

A.I. Pisarenko, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the President of the Russian Society of Foresters, V.V. Strakhov, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the All-Russian Research Institute for Forestry and Mechanization (VNIILM), the Federal Agency of Forestry (Rosleshoz)

The article dedicated to Scientific research in the field of forestry of Finland. The State Forest Research Institute of Finland (MET LA) conducts long-term research in most significant areas of forestry. The METLA founded in 1917, became a member of the Natural Resources Institute Finland-LUKE from January 2015, was established on the basis of the Institute of Agriculture and Food, the Forest Institute, the Institute of Hunting and Fisheries, the Statistical Service of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland.

Keywords: forest, forestry, research, Finland, METLA.

 

Regional Events

Environmental Performance of the Region in the Context of the «Green» Economy (the Republic of Komi)

V.F. Fomina, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Institute of Socio-Economic and Energy Problems of the North, the Komi Scientific Center, the Ural Branch of the RAS, A.V. Fomin, Can.Sc. (Econom.), the Open Joint-Stock Company «Syktyvkarsky Vodokanal»

To assess the environmental performance of the region, the European model DPSIR (Driving Forces, Pressure, State, Impact, Reaction) was used. Based on the model applied to water use, a set of indicators has been generated that reflects the effectiveness of the implementation of the main directions of development of the water management complex in the region in the context of «green» growth. The decoupling method was tested to identify the nature of the relationship between economic activity factors and the «pressure» on the environment in the period 2007-2016, which increases the objectivity of assessing the level of well-being of the ecological situation. The analysis of the indicators of the «reaction» block outlined the factors that reduce the ecological performance of the region.

Keywords: «green» economy, water use, the Komi Republic, model, measurement of «green» growth, decoupling factor, investments in environmental protection.

 

Collection Fund from Local Flora on Schoolyard

A.I. Khizrieva, S.R. Murtuzalieva, the Dagestan State University

The local floral resource potential in Dagestan mountainous conditions is recommended for the design of the schoolyard.

Keywords: flora, resources, schoolyard, plant collection.

 

Calendar of Events

The XIV All-Russian Congress «Environmental Protection and Ensuring Environment Safety: State Regulation 2018 Spring» (Moscow, April 10-11, 2018)

 

Bookshelf

Review of the monograph by V.N. Sedih «Taiga Everyday Life» (Novosibirsk: Literary Fund «Si birskie Ogni» («Siberian Lights»), 2017. – 351 p.).

Бюллетень

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