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2017 / 4

NATURE

 

Common Problems of Nature Management

Development of Scientific Foundation for Solving Environmental and Hydrobiological Problems of Integrated Coastal Zone Management of the Crimea

S.I. Rubtsova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, the Russian Academy of Sciences, RAS (Sevastopol)

The work is dedicated to the development of the system of coastal zone environmental assessment, grounding on the principles of integrated approach to the management of resource and environmental safety in the Azov Sea and Black Sea region. The methodological approaches and applied assessments of the quality control analysis of sea water and benthic sediment according to the monitoring data were formed. The methods of the marine environment biomonitoring were offered; its results have a universal basis and can serve both as the index of investigated cenosis structure and its physiological state.

Keywords: ecosystem, Black Sea, Azov Sea, coastal zone, marine environment biomonitoring, coastal zone management.

 

Mineral Resources

The Main Elements of Water Balance and their Role in Formation of Water Regime of the Upper Dnieper Region

M.M. Cherepansky, Dr.Sc. (Geology), the Russian Geological Prospecting University named by S. Ordzhonikidze, O.A. Karimova, Can.Sc. (Geology), A.V. Dziuba, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Hydrospetsgeology (Rosnedra), A.V. Zaitseva, the Institute of Water Problems, RAS

The article discusses the assessment of the role of groundwater withdrawal on groundwater flow in the Russian part of the Dnieper river basin within the Moscow artesian basin. The climatic, hydrological and geological-hydrogeological conditions of the basin of the Upper Dnepr are given. An assessment of the role of climatic and geological-hydrogeological factors on the groundwater component of river flow is carried out. It is shown that the largest decrease in the groundwater component of river flow detected at the second water station, due to intensive water withdrawal and geological and hydrogeological conditions.

Keywords: groundwater flow, river flow, module of the groundwater flow, coefficient of the rivers underground supply, water balance, impact of groundwater’s abstraction.

 

Water Resources

Research into Hydrologic Characteristics of the Ural River in the Verkhne-Ural’sky, Magnitogorsky and Iriklinsky Hydroscheme Sites

A.E. Kosolapov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Engeneer.), K.G. Gurin, Can.Sc. (Engeer.), N.V. Sobodashev, the Russian Information-Analytic and Research Water Economy Centre (Rostov-on-Don), N.S. Bezmaternykh., L.S. Kovalenko, the Russian Research Institute of Multiple Use and Protection of Water Resources (Ekaterinburg)

The results of hydrologic studies carried out when developing regulations for water resources use of the Verkhne-Ural’sky, Magnitogorsky and Iriklinsky reservoirs are considered in the article. Date on hydrologic stations and river flow in the Ural river basin are given. Methods used under restoration and prolongation series of conditionally natural runoff in the hydroscheme sites are described. Restoration and prolongation of hydrologic series of conditionally natural flow were carried out on the base both systematic observations by the Hydrometeoservice subdivisions and available data of design-exploration and research institutions, reservoirs operation services, including the archive data. Uniformity assessment of empirical distribution for conditionally natural annual runoff in the hydroscheme sites is carried out. The calculation results of the parameters for annual, low water and maximum runoff.

Keywords: reservoirs hydroscheme, water gage, hydrologic series, high water, low water, representative period, difference integral curve, uniformity assessment, runoff parameters.

 

Land Resources and Soils

Media Environment Development of Soil Science at YouTube

V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Research Centre «Agroprognoz»,

N.N. Rybalskiy, Can.Sc. (Biology), Senior Researcher, the Soil Geography Department, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

It is studied the media environment of Soil science on YouTube. Highlighted the main criteria for growth and engagement of the audience on YouTube. There is also analysed the most popular Soil science channel in Russian language. Formulated the main criteria which influencing the development of the YouTube channel; proposed recommendations on the management of specialized Soil science channels. The development concept of scientific and popular-science channels on YouTube is considered.

Keywords: media, YouTube, channel, video, blog, vlog, soil science, internet, media, seo, subscribers, views, popularization, online lectures, distance learning, social media, education, popular science.

 

Forest Resources

Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Alien Species, Using the Example of Paulownia tomentosa

A.V. Egoshin, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), the Sochi National Park

Simulation of the spatial distribution of Paulownia tomentosa using bioclimatic variables and environmental data was conducted. The results of the simulation show that climate change will contribute to the further spread of paulownia in the south of the Russian Black Sea region.

Keywords: invasions, alien species, Paulownia tomentosa, Russian Black Sea region, GIS.

 

Biodiversity

Biodiversity and Endangered Species of Terrestrial and Marine Animals of the Coastal-Marine Territory of the Pacific Russia (The continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 3, 2017)

V.N. Bocharnikov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Pacific Institute of Geography, the Far East Board, RAS, A.M. Tokranov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Kamchatka Division of the Pacific Institute of Geography, Yu.N. Gluschenko, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Far Eastern State University

In the review there are results and geographical assessment of the current state of biodiversity and living condition of terrestrial and aquatic animals at the regional level (Pacific territory of Russia) and local levels (the Far-Eastern subjects of the Russian Federation). It is examines the conservation status as well as the species diversity, ecological habitats and rare species of animals. The quantitative faunal characteristics have been mapped throughout the Russian Far East. There are considered and discussed the challenges and main threats to marine-coastal and terrestrial biodiversity. In paper is discussed the main reasons for having a negative impact on the conservation of species and ecosystems. According to main ecosystems are defined and recommend measures, restricted to local management plans of the Pacific Russia to make appropriate satisfaction of public needs for residents.

Keywords: biodiversity, rare species, Red Book, vertebrates, Pacific Russia, coastal-marine areas, species richness, threats, nature management (environmental management).

 

Condition of Rare and Disappearing Avifauna of a Lake Deed-Hulsun in the Republic of Kalmykia During the Period from 2010 to 2015

I.B. Shapovalova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Water Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (IWP RAS)

In article the changes of a biodiversity of rare and endangered species of birds on the Lake Deed-Hulsun of the Republic of Kalmykia, during the period from 2008 to 2015 in connection with strengthening of anthropogenic influence were considered. The analysis of the current state of populations of coastal aviafauna is done. Data on a specific variety and number of bird species of water-wetland complex around a area of research were presented. There were considered the dynamics of species diversity of birds in connection with change of its hydrological mode and strengthening of a factor of concern. The reservoir contribution to preservation and enrichment of a biodiversity of the region was estimated. Recommendations about management of their hydrological mode for the purpose of maintaining and preservation of a biodiversity of steppe reservoirs were made too.

Keywords: biodiversity, avifauna, ecological and faunistic characterization, specific structure, abundance (the number), rare and vulnerable species, estimating indexes, the bird communities transformation.

 

Seed Productivity of Endemic Flora of the Eastern Caucasus

Z.A. Guseinova, Can.Sc. (Biology), R.A. Murtazaliev, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Mountain Botanical Garden, RAS (Makhachkala)

The seed productivity of endemic flora of the Eastern Caucasus Paeonia mlokosewitschii Lomak was studied. Variability of productivity by years, connected with weather conditions, is revealed. Recommendations are given for preserving the species from complete extinction.

Keywords: Paeonia mlokosewitschii, endemic, Eastern Caucasus, population, seed productivity.

 

Water Biological Resources

Perspectives of the Rational Use of Water and Coastal Phytocienosis

A.I. Nikiforov, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), N.E. Ryazanov, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation

The article considers the economic potential of freshwater areas from the point of view of organization of rational use of aquatic and coastal phytocenoses. The expediency of taking into account the traditional experience of nature management of the indigenous population with regard to the use of resources of aquatic and near-water food plants is discussed. The urgency of activating the search for and use of advanced technologies in water and coastal crop production is substantiated due to the progressive degradation of land areas suitable for agriculture; discusses the recreational appeal of aquatic and coastal phytocenoses, as well as their importance as local centers for stabilizing the level of biodiversity.

Keywords: food aquatic plants, aquaculture, food, vegetable raw materials, edible rhizomes, corms, organic farming, biodiversity, sustainable use of nature, aquatic and coastal phytocenoses.

 

Assessment of the Ecological Status of the Main Water Body of the SPNA «Dolina of the River Volgusha and Paramonovsky ravine» Using Bioindication Methods

N.V. Kuznetsova, Can.Sc. (Biology), A.I. Ivanova, the Dmitrovsky Fishery Technological Institute – the Branch of the Astrakhan State Technical University, V.P. Korotenko, the Moscow State University

To evaluate the quality of water in the Volgusha river, the Pantle and Bucca saprobity system, the Woodiwiss method and the Integrated Index of the ecological well-being of the reservoir (IIES) were used. The spatial heterogeneity of hydrological and hydrochemical conditions throughout the Volgusha river, caused by the terrain, determines the structural differences of the zoobenthos, its composition and quantitative development; so it can serve as an indicator of water quality in different parts of the river. Bioindication of the river on the basis of zoobenthos indicators using various methods allowed to give a reliable estimate of the degree of anthropogenic load on different sections of the water object.

Keywords: special protected natural areas (SPNA), bioindication, zoobenthos, saprobity, small river, water quality.

 

Climatic Resources

Air Temperature and Precipitation Anomalies in the South of Russia

E.V. Vyshkvarkova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), O.Yu. Kovalenko, the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RAS

Using air temperature and precipitation data from meteorological stations over the territory of South of Russia, behavior of these parameters for period 1991-2010 relatively to 1970-1990 was investigated. Ubiquitous increase in average air temperature and precipitation over the South of Russia was shown.

Keywords: anomalies, air temperature, precipitation, South of Russia.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Assessment of Climate Comfort of the Crimean Seaside Resort in the Warm Half-year

A.A. Stefanovich, E.N. Voskresenskaya, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RAS

The article presents results of the analysis of changes in bioclimatic indicators. The main algorithms for calculating the most effective bioclimatic indices are presented. Bioclimatic characteristics were calculated according to the regional features of the study areas. On this basis, the climatic comfort of the main seaside resorts of the Crimea in the warm period of the year (from May to October) was assessed.

Keywords: climate comfort, bioclimatic indices, equivalent-effective temperature, people’s health, climatotherapy, resort.

 

Environmental Protection

Energy Efficiency of Biomass Miscanthus Sinensis as Biofuel

G.A. Bulatkin, Dc.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Fundamental Problems of Biology, RAS

On the gray forest soils of the Moscow region there was exposed the biological and energy efficiency of biomass cultivation of the Miscanthus Chinese (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.) In the result it is possible to recommend the cultivation of this crop for the purpose of producing biofuel. Comparison of five types of coolant when used at a local level showed that pellets from the biomass of miscanthus are second only to the main natural gas, which has not yet been fully provided to the population of Russia.

Keywords: Miscanthus Chinese (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss), energy efficiency, biofuel, alternative energy, plant biomass, soil fertility.

 

Analysis of Modern Methods of Disposal of Drill Cuttings

M.V. Nacheva, E.N. Voskresenskaya, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Natural and Technical Sciences, RAS

This article presents an overview of the most modern methods of drilling wastes used in Russia and other countries of the world. The advantages and disadvantages are studied/ There is also presented critical analysis of each group of methods.

Keywords: utilization, methods, drill cuttings, ecology, environment, ecosystem.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

International Cooperation

Law Mechanism of Green Economy Principles’ Realization Aiming Provision of Sustainable Development of Russia and Belarus as Members of the Union State

O.A. Bakinovskaya, Can.Sc. (Legal), the Chef, the Section of Research in the Field of Civil, Ecological and Social Law, the National Centre of Legislation and Legal Research, the Republic of Belarus

The article is focused on law mechanism of green economy principles’ realization aiming provision of sustainable development of Russia and Belarus as members of the Union State. The key issue is to create the Union State Strategy based on green economy principles’ realization to provide sustainable development of Russia and Belarus as members of the Union State. In order to harmonize both Russian and Belarusian legislation it may start with public procurement and implement ecologization as a public procurement principle.

Keywords: green economy principles, the Union State, sustainable development, law frame for economy ecologization, ecologization as a public procurement principle.

 

Human Society and Nature

The Role of Libraries in Environmental Education and the Formation of Ecological Culture

V.V. Leschinskaya1, the Russian State Library for Youth (RSLM), N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources» (NIA-Nature), the Russian Ecological Academy (Rosecoacademy)

In the article the main stages of the formation of the ecological and educational direction in the work of Russian libraries, the development of library centers of ecological information and culture are examined. The special role of modern libraries as platforms for intellectual leisure and stimulation of nature protection activity of youth is underlined. There are summed up the results of the Year of Ecology in the educational and information work of the libraries of Russia. The main directions of improving the activity of libraries in the sphere of environmental education of the population are shown too.

Keywords: ecological culture, ecological education, libraries, library ecological centers.

 

Analysis of Problem of the Skeptical View on the Anthropogenic Reasons of the Climate Changes

A.O. Kokorin, Can.Sc. (Phisic.-Mathemat.), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF)

The work is devoted to specific features and considerations of the climatic skepticism, i.e. mistrustful view of people on anthropogenic reasons of the climate changes in the last decades and the XXI century as a whole. The article provides recommendations on communication to skeptical people, when simple presentation of information is not enough and psychology of human perception and special aspects of media should be recognized and accounted.

Keywords: climate changes, anthropogenic reasons, skeptical view, psychology of perception, presentation of information.

 

Calendar of Events

Ecologisation of Life and Human Consciousness (XXVI International Symposium «Bio-Noosphere Protection and Cosmology: Non-traditional Plant Production, Selection and Biolanduse. Eco-Friendly Economy, Technologies and Nutrition Systems, Medicine and Gerontology», September 10-17, 2017, Alushta)

 

Bookshelf

The State report «On the state and on the protection of the environment of the Russian Federation in 2016». – Moscow: Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of Russian Federation, NIA-Priroda, 2017. – 760 p.

The State report «On the state and use of water resources of the Russian Federation in 2016». – Moscow: NIA-Priroda, 2017. – 300 p.

Water resources and water management in Russia in 2016: Statistical Handbook / Ed. N.G. Rybalsky, A.D. Dumnov, V.A. Omelyanenko. – Moscow: NIA-Priroda, 2017. – 302 p.

The Main Statistical Indicators of Environmental Protection: Stat. bulleten. – M.: Rosstat, 2017. – 114 p.

 

Бюллетень

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