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2017 / 3

№3 2017

 

NATURE

 

Common Problems of Nature Management

Pitfalls of Ecology

B.N. Luzgin, Prof.-Dr.Sc.(Geograph.), Can.Sc.(Geology), the Altai State University

Presentation on the environmental state of the country is largely subjective. Increased objectivity those, due to restrictions on access to the corresponding private databases, associated with the need to develop techniques (methods), depend on the low considerations of conjuncture. Tracking ratios of natural resources and their relative replenishment possible with the use of analysis of consumer-resource systems on algorithms similar demographic transition. The Gini coefficient allow calculation factors with sufficient reliability to determine the nature of the bundle of consumer society, when it is directly dependent on the provision of adequate resources.

Keywords: subjectivity of environmental assessments, accuracy of the data bank, structure and volumes of contaminants, stiffness modes of natural protection territories, resource-consumption shift, Gini coefficient, environmental ethics and morality.

 

Mineral Resources

The Steppe Zone of the Ural-Volga Region in the Conditions of Technogenic Impact: Optimization of Land Use into Account Landscape Structure

AK.V. Mjachina, Can.Sc.(Geograph), S.A. Dubrovskaya, Can.Sc.(Geograph),the Institute of Steppe, the Ural Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The article suggests ways of optimizing the steppe-mining nature (land) management on the basis of the author’s analysis geoecological status of the mining landscapes of the Ural-Volga region. The method of processing data on the location of mining operations in connection with the structural landscape units is shown. On the example of Orenburg region completed the integration of indicators of technogenic load and schemes of natural zoning. Territories with a high level of technogenic transformation are allocated, the map embed anthropogenically modified territories of the Orenburg region with the designation of geoecological zones of tension and stable geoecological situation is created too.

Keywords: steppe zone, mining landscape, natural zoning, landscape structure, optimization of nature (land) management, Ural-Volga region.

 

Water Resources

Water Use in Crimea: the Retrospective Development Trends and Some Estimates for the Future

A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc.(Econony), E.V. Muravyeva, N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc.(Biology), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

There is offered a brief analysis of the water management (water use) on the territory of modern Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol in the long retrospect and some prospects on the basis of official statistical and other information, published in the USSR, RSFSR and the Ukraine SSR, and after 1991 in Ukraine and in Russia.

Keywords: water management, water abstraction, water use, water disposal, ground water, rates (tariffs).

 

Characteristics of the Content and Forms of Heavy Metals Existence in Bottom Sediments of the Ivan’kovo and Uglich Reservoirs

G.Yu. Tolkachev, Can.Sc.(Geograph), N.V. Kolomiytsev, Can.Sc.(Geology), B.I. Korzhenevskiy, Can.Sc.(Geology), the All-Russian Research Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation

According to genesis and pathways, heavy metals enter the watercourse in different forms, often inherited from the soils of the catchment. These forms largely depend on the composition and concentration of pore solutions, the strength of the bond of heavy metals with the solid phase of sediments, the availability of their use by aquatic life, the toxicity level of sediments. Based on these characteristics it is possible to estimate the presence or absence of hazard of secondary pollution. The artical discusses the contents and forms of existence of heavy metals in bottom sediments of the reservoirs of the Upper Volga: Ivan,kovo and Uglich. Ivan,kovo is the main source of water supply of Moscow, Uglich is located below them.

Keywords: heavy metals, sediments, forms of existence, pollution, solid phase, water mass, reservoirs.

 

Land Resources and Soils

Methodology of Ecological and Economic Assessment of Land Degradation at Different Hierarchical Levels of Administrative and Economic Structure of Russia

O.A. Makarov, Dr.Sc.(Biology), A.S. Yakovlev, Dr.Sc.(Biology), A.S. Strokov, Can.Sc.(Economy), E.V. Tsvetnov, Can.Sc.( Biology), Y.R. Ermiyaev, the Laboratory Economics of Land Degradation, the Soil Science Faculty, t he Moscow State University

An economically and environmentally focused land degradation assessment methodology was developed, with the account of various hierarchical levels of the administrative and economic structure of the country (level of the individual farm, regional level, level of the subject of the Russian Federation, level of the federal district (okrug), and level of the whole country). The creation of such methodology required a search for a compromise between domestic and foreign approaches of assessing land degradation. The economic evaluation of land degradation, based on a comparison of the economic indicators of agricultural production under sustainable land management and with «traditional» land use («action/inaction») and the econometric model of the impact of irrigation on the restoration of land fertility and the economy of agriculture, IMPACT -3, are described circumstantially .

Keywords: land degradation, ecosystem services, the damage from the degradation, activity/inactivity evaluation, econometric models, the levels of administrative and economic structure.

 

Forest Resources

Features of Adaptation of Forests and Forestry of Russia to Climate Change

A.I. Pisarenko, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Federal Forestry Agency (Rosleshoz), V.V. Strakhov, Dr.Sc.(Agricult.), the All-Russian Research Institute for Forestry and Mechanization (VNIILM), Rosleshoz

The article shows the main results of the analysis of the most probable parameters of the response of Russia’s forest ecosystems to the global warming of the climate, carried out by the authors in relation to the processes of response of Russia’s forest ecosystems to global warming. It is shown that, first of all, it is necessary to estimate the rates of expected accumulation of stocks of dead wood and other forest fuels, an assessment of changes in the fire hazard situation and risks of forest fires, assessment of changes in the water regime of forests, seed and vegetative reproduction of forest-forming trees, their extinction and replacement by others types of existing forest-forming tree species, transformation and destruction of forests, speed of development of new forest formations, composition and structure of fauna of mammals, birds and insects in new forests (replacing existing forests). It also has been shown that research is needed in the field of mathematical modeling of the transformation of modern forest ecosystems in order to model the strategy, etc.

Keywords: forest ecosystems, climate change, global warming, adaptation of forests, adaptation of forestry to climate change.

 

Biodiversity

Biodiversity and Endangered Species of Terrestrial and Marine Animals of the Coastal-Marine Territory of the Pacific Russia

V.N. Bocharnikov, Dr.Sc.(Biology), the Pacific Institute of Geography, the Far East Board, RAS, A.M. Tokranov, Dr.Sc.(Biology), the Kamchatka Division of the Pacific Institute of Geography, Yu.N. Gluschenko, Can.Sc.(Biology), the Far Eastern State University

In the review there are results and geographical assessment of the current state of biodiversity and living condition of terrestrial and aquatic animals at the regional level (Pacific territory of Russia) and local levels (the Far-Eastern subjects of the Russian Federation). It is examines the conservation status as well as the species diversity, ecological habitats and rare species of animals. The quantitative faunal characteristics have been mapped throughout the Russian Far East. There are considered and discussed the challenges and main threats to marine-coastal and terrestrial biodiversity. In paper is discussed the main reasons for having a negative impact on the conservation of species and ecosystems. According to main ecosystems are defined and recommend measures, restricted to local management plans of the Pacific Russia to make appropriate satisfaction of public needs for residents.

Keywords: biodiversity, rare species, Red Book, vertebrates, Pacific Russia, coastal-marine areas, species richness, threats, nature management (environmental management).

 

Biological Resources of Water

Estimation of Stability of Salmon Fisheries as a Factor of Sustainable Development of the Fishing Industry of Kamchatka

A.V. Andrutskiy, the Kamchatka State Technical University

In this article it is appreciated the dynamics of the resource base of salmons in Kamchatka region. Biomass dynamics of salmons may determine a trend of sustainable development of the fishing industry of Kamchatka. The research based on date of the Federal Fisheries Agency for extraction salmons. At this time, resource bases of pink, sockeye and chinook salmon is in satisfactory condition. Resource bases of chum and coho salmon tend to decrease. In summary, salmon fishery is potentially sustainable, that partially causes a sustainable development of the fishing industry of Kamchatka.

Keywords: fishing industry, official catches, sustainable development, salmon fish, resource base, fishery, Kamchatka.

 

Climatic Resources

Long-term Changes of the Basic Meteorological Characteristics in the Zone of Southern Taiga of European Russia (Upper Volga Basin)

J.V. Kuzmina, D.Sc.(Geograph.), the Institute of Water Problems, RAS, S.E. Treshkin, D.Sc.(Agricult.), the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations

For the southern taiga zone of European Russia (Upper Volga basin) there is analyzed the long-term annual, semi-annual and seasonal dynamics of the main meteorological parameters (total precipitation and air temperature: average, maximum and minimum) according to their trends over a long period (54-136 years, to 2014), on the basis of daily observations of 8 meteorological stations of WMO (Maksatiha, Staritsa, Tver, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Kostroma, Moscow, Mojaisk, Kolomna). The main trends of climate change are set; their share based on the proposed relative rate changes of meteorological characteristics (OKI) are assessed too.

Keywords: average, absolute minimum, absolute maximum, average maximum, average minimum of air temperatures, total precipitation, relative change indices of the basic meteorological characteristics (OKI), climate change.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Problems of Management of Steppe Reserves in the Conditions of Activation Fires (for example, the cluster «Preduralskaya steppe» nature reserve «Orenburgsky»)

V.V. Pavleychik, Can.Sc.(Geograph.), the Head of the Laboratory the Institute of Steppe, the Ural Branch, RAS

On the basis of Landsat satellite images and the results of the identification of burnt areas for the years 1984-2014 revealed long-term dynamics of natural fires within the new cluster («Preduralskaya steppe») of «Orenburg» nature reserve. Describes the socio-economic background of the intensification of fires. It was revealed that modern frequency of fires is a potential problem for the sustainability of ecosystems and management of steppe reserves.

Keywords: steppe fires, intensification, nature reserve «Orenburgsky», underutilized land, Landsat space (satellites) images.

 

Environmental Protection

The Prerequisites for the Formation of an Integrated Approach to Environmental Risk Management at the Enterprise of Chemical Industry

L.S. Krutova, the Postgraduate student, the Federal Research Institute of System Analysis, the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation (NII SP)

The article highlights the problems of the chemical industry – an important source of environmental pollution. Today, the likelihood that the enterprises of the chemical complex may face losses much higher than 5 years ago, because regulators continue to tighten liability for harm to the environment. The article also presents the tools (instruments) enabling economically to orient enterprises in the understanding of the need to carry out their activities in environmental protection measures by introducing the mechanism of insurance of environmental risks. Of the assumptions about the possible use of the «event tree» for evaluating ecological risks and the subsequent calculation of tariffs in ecological insurance.

Keywords: chemical industry, ecological and economic management, environmental sustainability, ecological risk assessment, «event tree», ecological insurance.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

Anniversaries

Soil Institute named V. V. Dokuchaev – 90 years

I.N. Lubimova, Dr.Sc.(Agricult.), the Soil Institute named V.V. Dokuchaev, N.G. Pybalsky, Dr.Sc.(Biology), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

In the article, dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the Dokuchayev Soil Institute – Russia’s first scientific institution in the field of soil science – considered the period of formation and development of the Institute within the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1927- 1961), the Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, RAAS (1961-2013). Also there are main advances of the Soil Institute nam. V.V. Dokuchaev in modern period, when in 2011 the Institute was headed by Vice-President of the RAAS, Academician A.L. Ivanov.

Keywords: soil, soil science, Soil Institute named V.V. Dokuchaev, history, studies of the soils of the country.

 

International Cooperation

Problems and Prospects of Environmental Policy of Russia and Belarus within the Union State

G.S. Rosenberg, the Member-Correspondent, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Ecology of Volga Basin, RAS

The article presents a brief analysis of the speeches at the 50th meeting of the Standing seminar under the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union of Belarus and Russia concerning construction of the Union State «Actual problems and priorities of environmental policy of Russia and Belarus within the Union State» (November 1-2, 2017, Bryansk).

Keywords: environmental policy, sustainable development, Union State, single environmental space, environmental issues, environmental education, environmental activities.

 

Regional Events

Analysis of Environmental Risks and Propositions on Stabilization of Ecology of Donbass

K.N. Marenych, Dc.Sc. (Engineer.), the Donetsk National Technical University

Insolvency of assumptions of the possible environmental disaster in Donbass connected with underground mining operations is proved. Environmental risks are analysed and information on means and actions for ensuring ecological safety of the enterprises and productions is also provided.

Keywords: ecology of Donbass, geoecology, environmental safety, environmental risks.

 

Human Society and Nature

Resource of the Ecological Code

E.V. Girusov, Dc.Sc.(Philosoph.), the Moscow State Academy of Fine Arts named Surikov, V.I. Fal’ko, Can.Sc. (Philosoph.), the Mytishchi Branch, the Moscow State Technical University named N.E. Bauman

To prevent the global environmental catastrophe it is necessary to move on to partner, subject-subject relations between man and nature. Nature management and environmental protection must follow socio-natural laws and ecological ethics. There is most important role in this development and adoption of national and international codes of ethics of environmental management. A draft of the Ecological Code of Russia, developed by a group of philosophers in 1993, is discussed. It is proposed to give it a legal status, setting the basis for environmental legislation and use it in the development of an international code of ethics for the use of natural resources (environmental management).

Keywords: ecological crisis, anthropogenic factor, moral attitude to nature, ethics of environmental (nature resources) management, ecological code.

 

Soil Science Representation at YouTube

V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Director, the Research Centre «Agroprognoz», N.N. Rybalsky, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Senior researcher, the Soil Geography Department, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article explains the representation of soil science in the video format on YouTube – the most popular online media platform. There is investigated the transition of online media from purely entertainment to another purposes – educational, popular scientific and research. The most popular scientific and popular science youtube channels – in comparison with the channels of soil and agro-themed – is analyzed too. Also evaluated the current situation and the potential of Russian-language youtube channels based on the analysis of search queries.

Keywords: YouTube, youtube channels, video, soil science, soil, soil scientist, media, Internet, popularization of soil science, popular science, soil video, online lectures, distance learning, vlog, social media, education.

 

Calendar of Events

Actual Problems of Natural Resources Management and Protection of Natural Resources

V.V. Strukova, the Deputy Head, the State Environmental Budgetary Agency of Moscow City «Moscow Municipal Administration of Natural Territories» («Mospriroda»), D.S. Ermakov, Prof., the Department of Education for Natural Sciences, the State Autonomous Institution of High Education of Moscow City «Moscow Institute of Open Education» (MIOO)

The contents of the reports of Russian and foreign participants, which were presented on the plenary sessions and round tables at the VIII Nevsky International Ecological Congress «Ecological Education – A Clean Country», and also recommendation from the outcome resolution are presented. Also in this paper especially emphasizes the actual problems of the natural resources management and natural resources protection with the international, national and regional aspects.

Keywords: Nevsky International Ecological Congress, natural resources management, protection of natural resources.

 

 

 

 

Бюллетень

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