2016 / 4
Common Problems of Nature Management
Urgent Nature Conservation Prospect in Russia
B.N. Luzgin, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), Can.Sc. (Geology), the Altai State University
In the case of Russia analysis of the growth in global environmental crisis. It draws attention to significant reduction in the environmental role of protected areas (PAs). There is conclusion about the need for a radical strengthening of the role and importance of environmental protection systems as compared to the increase in size of these areas.
Keywords: nature conservation, environmental protection systems, reserves, global environmental crisis, leveling ecosystem, regulations of protected areas (PA), PA audited.
The Development of Thermoabrasive Slope of the Lake Saysary (Yakutsk)
A.M. Salva, Can.Sc. (Geology), the North-Eastern Federal University
There are determined the main factors revitalizing termoabrasive on the Western coastal slope of lake Saysary in the city of Yakutsk and identified two main causes.
Keywords: termoabrasia, erosion, coastal slope, gabions, frozen soil, structurally unstable soils, Lake Saysary, the city of Yakutsk.
On the Development of Inland Water Transport
V.A. Krivoshey, Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Noncommercial Partnership «National Center of Water Problems»
In the article there is done analysis of the Strategy of inland waterway transport development for the period up to 2030. Also is done comparison of actual and projected freight and passenger traffic. It is shown that the projected traffic is considerably high, and proposed for development of inland water transport events unfounded.
Keywords: water resources, inland waterways, inland water transport, river transport, hydropower, navigation, navigable hydraulic engineering constructions.
Land Resources and Soils
Ecological-Economic Valuation of Land: Methodology and Prospects of the Development
O.A. Makarov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), E.V. Tsvetnov, Can.Sc. (Biology), J.R. Ermiyaev, the Department of Soil Science, the Moscow State University
Ecological-economic assessment of land defined as the estimation of a loss or benefits in monetary form from the use of different natural objects and the environment in general and environmental protection technologies. There is detailed analysis of the methods of this evaluation. It is established that in Russia is dominated by approaches related to the definition of land damage as a result of degradation, pollution, littering and damage (harm). Also it is noted that the methods of environmental economic valuation of land based on the determination of the profit from their optimal utilization and on the comparison of profits with losses, including their irrational use, have the most prospects to develop a strategy for sustainable development of territories.
Keywords: ecological-economic evaluation, damage, harm, benefits, profit, sustainable land use, ecosystem services.
Biological Resources of Land
Correlation Between the Phytomass of Lowland Meadows and the Magnitude of the Vegetation Index (based on the results of ground spectrometry)
I.M. Miklyaeva, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), O.V. Vakhnina, the Geographical Faculty, the Moscow State University
The article researches the phytomass of lowland meadows, its dynamics and forage quality. The study analyses the data accumulated during 2008-2014 in the river valley meadows of the river Protva located in the southern part of the coniferous-broadleaf woodland zone of the European part of the Russian Federation (Borovsky district, Kaluga region). On the basis of the results of ground-based spectrometry the value of the phytomass of different types of meadows is measured; its correlation with the species richness of the meadow, the volume of phytocenotic horizons and the values of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are established.
Keywords: phytomass, lowland meadows, forage quality, species richness of the meadow, volume of phytocoenotic horizons, ground spectroradiometry, Normalised Difference Vegatation Index (NDVI)
The Current State of Reservoir Deed-Khulsun and its Impact on Coastal Avifauna due to Changes in Water Regime and Enhancing Anthropogenic Load
I.B. Shapovalova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Water Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)
There was established current state of the Deed-Khulsun reservoir in the Republic of Kalmykia and its coastal avifauna, due to changes in the water regime of the reservoir and increased anthropogenic load. The estimation of species richness and population density of birds in its coastal areas was done. The basic diagnostic indicators of the transformation of ornithocomplexes, due to changes in the water regime of the reservoir (flooding) in connection with its fish stocking were established. This factor was a prerequisite to the discussion of proposals for the management of the reservoir regime. The contribution of the reservoir Deed-Hulsun in the formation of the region’s avifauna was defined.
Keywords: steppe zone, reservoir, ecotone system, ornithocomplexes, ecosystem transformation, water regime, the main factors of influence.
Feed Support of Capreolus Pygargus in the Abnormal Winter Periods in the State Nature Reserve (Zacaznick) «Kirzinsky»
V.B. Ermolik, the Head, the State Reserve (Zacaznick) of Federal Level «Kirzinsky» (Novosibirsk region), the Novosibirsk State Agrarian University
The article discusses the problems of preserving and increasing the number of wildlife in the natural reserve (zacaznick). There are showing biotechnical measures aimed at improving the living conditions of game animals, in particular to this type of fauna as the roe deer (Capreolus pygargus), which is needed forage feeding in the harsh snowy winter. The author found that the best and affordable biotech culture in the critical periods of pe-winter anomaly is clearly a sunflower. It is in those places where there was a sunflower, marked by massive accumulations of deer.
Keywords: natural reserve (zacaznick), forage feeding, capreolus pygargus, winter, biotech culture, sunflowers.
Water Biological Resources
The Requirements of National and International Standards to the Quality of Cultivation Water in Using of Aquatic Organisms for Evaluation of Ecological Toxicity
E.V. Fedoseeva1, Can.Sc. (Biology), M.M. Gladkova2, P.V. Uchanov3, V.A. Terekhova1,2, Dr.Sc. (Biology):
1the Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 2the Moscow State University, 3the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution (RAS)
The paper summarizes the requirements of the standards and guidelines to the conditions of cultivation of freshwater hydrobionts in toxicological studies to evaluate the quality of environment. It is emphasized that the quality of the water, influences on results of biotests. The list of indicators, which is recommended to monitor the chemical and physical characteristics of investigated water samples of varying quality, has been critically examined. The optimal composition of synthetic medias, which are successfully used for the cultivation of freshwater hydrobionts, is given. In the paper, the recommendations for use of identical waters for cultivation of freshwater hydrobionts and dilution of samples in investigations of their ecological toxicity and for assessment of sensitivity of test cultures to a model toxicant (a reference toxicant) have been justified.
Keywords: ecological toxicity, biotesting, hydrobionts, waste, standards, interlaboratory comparison, cultivation water, natural water, synthetic mediums.
Long-term Changes of the Basic Meteorological Characteristics in the Amur River Basin
J.V. Cuzmina, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Water Problems, the Russian Academy of Science, S.E. Treshkin, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
For the Amur River basin analyzed the long-term annual, semi-annual and seasonal dynamics of the main meteorological parameters (total precipitation and air temperature: average, maximum and minimum). This analysis was done according to their trends over a period of years (for 54-174 years, i.e. since the station opening till 2013) based on daily observations of 19 meteorological stations of the WMO. Also it was done comparison of data from three weather stations in the Siberian Lena basin. The share of climate change on the basis of the proposed relative rate changes of meteorological characteristics is estimated too.
Keywords: air temperatures, average, absolute minimum, absolute maximum, average maximum, average minimum, total precipitation, relative change factor, basic meteorological characteristics (BMC), climate change.
Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas
The Role of the Regional Geological Museum in the Preservation Natural Resources of the European North-East of Russia
I.S. Astakhova, Can.Sc. (Geology), L.R. Zhdanova, I.N. Burtcev, Can.Sc. (Geology), the Institute of Geology, the Komi Science Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The information resources of the geological objects in the European North-East of Russia in the regional museums are presented. Googel-map of the objects of geological heritage are presented too. The descriptions of geological object are supported by information and color photographs. There are characterized collection funds of the regional museums of the objects of geological heritage.
Keywords: objects of geological heritage, geological monuments, maps, museum, European North-East of Russia.
The Botanical Biodiversity and Rare Species of Plants of Specially Protected Natural Areas of West Siberian Boreal Coniferous Forests (inside Tomsk oblast)
N.M. Semenova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), I.I. Volkova, Can.Sc. (Biology), V.P. Amelchenko, Can.Sc. (Biology), I.V. Volkov, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Tomsk State University
Data are presented on botanical biodiversity of certain specially protected natural areas of Tomsk oblast established in various landscape-geographical, economic and administrative conditions including areas within the Great Vasyugan Mire and the outskirts of Tomsk. An analysis is conducted of expansion and current condition of certain species – Orchidaceae, Ericaceae, Cupressaceae, Tiliaceae and Lamiaceae – registered during exploration of specially protected areas of regional significance. Some analytical reviews of species are given along with description of sites where 6 plant species were discovered (Orchis militaris, Orchis fuchsii, Juniperus communis, Empetrum nigrum, Tilia cordata, Stachys silvatica) that have different protection status in the area of study.
Keywords: biodiversity, taiga zone, specially protected areas, Western Siberia, certain species.
Ecological Aspects of Astronautic Activity
I.F. Krestnikov, leading specialist, the Institute of Applied Geophysics named by E.K. Fedorov
The present study examined peculiarities of astronautic activity as a factor of ecological situation’s formation. Results of empirical research are presented. Issues of public opinion formation related to socio-ecological consequences of astronautic activity are highlighted.
Keywords: ecological factor, ecological situation, astronautic, empirical research, public opinion.
The Study of the Ecological State of Khalaktyrskoye Lake in Terms of Exposure of the Urban Environment (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky city)
A.E. Golovaneva, the Kamchatka State Technical University
The article deals with the problem of pollution of the water body under the influence of the urban environment. Discusses the results of hydrochemical analyses of the 70-s, as well as 2009-2010 and 2013. According to the results of observations possible to determine the direct correlation between pollution sources and the content exceeds MPC (maximum permissible concentration) values for phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen and anionic surfactants. There is reservoir source of oil pollution of the river Kirpichnaya flowing into the lake. The iron content of all study stations exceed the MPC values. In Khalaktyrsky Lake discharged heated waste water of heat-electric generating plant (HEGP-2).
Keywords: Khalaktyrskoye Lake, anthropogenic impact, eutrophication, sewage, thermal pollution of water body.
Geodesy and Cartography
The Geoinformation Analysis of Project Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation «On Approval of Rules of Maintaining the State Register of Accumulated Environmental Damage Objects»
E.A. Kravets, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)
An analysis of the correctness of the project Resolution Government of the Russian Federation «On approval of the rules of the state register of accumulated environmental damage objects» in the article is done. This analysis is performed from the point of view of the geographical features of the objects accumulated damage to the environment and the characteristics of the information flows of environmental assessment. Recommendations for the revision and correction of the document are prepared.
Keywords: environment, geoinformation analysis, accumulated damage, the State Register, environmental safety level criterion.
NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY
Environmental Education in the Russian Federation – a Journey of 25 Years: History, Status and Prospects
N.G. Rybalsky1,2, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), E.D. Samotesov1, E.V. Kolesova2,3, Can.Sc. (Pedagog.), L.V. Popova4, Dr.Sc. (Pedagog.), S.A. Stepanov2,5, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Pedagog.), V.R. Khrisanov2,6, Can.Sc. (Geograph.):
1the National Information Agency «Natural Resources» (NIA-Priroda), 2the Presidium of the Russian Ecological Academy, 3the Environmental Educational Center «Vorobiyovi Gori» (HPBU «Mospiroda»), 4the Museum of Eearth (MSU named M.V. Lomonosov), 5the International Independent Ecological-Political University, 6the Institute of Fundamental Problems of Biology (RAS)
The article presents a 25-year-old history of the formation of the environmental situation in the Russian Federation, as of 1 January 2016 for environmental education in the country: educational institutions (preschool, school education), additional children education (including the All-Russian Olympiad in ecology), secondary and higher professional environmental education. Given the onset of the Year of Ecology in Russia, in the light of the implementation of the principles of the state policy in the field of environmental development of Russia until 2030 presented proposals to improve environmental education in the country.
Keywords: environmental education, formation of ecological culture, preschool, school and additional environmental education, environmental professional education, environmental education for sustainable development.
Research and Development in Forestry of Some Developed Countries
A.I. Pisarenko, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Society of Foresters, V.V. Strakhov, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the All-Russian Research Institute for Forestry and Mechanization (VNIILM, Rosleskhoz)
The article succinctly set out an overview of trends in the development of R&D forestry of the world, especially advanced in USA, Canada, Germany, Finland, and Russia. By virtue of general economic, scientific and technological power of these countries there is accounted for over 80% of the world’s English-language publications in the field of forestry. The authors formulated a new forest research areas in the world. It is shown that in 2015 on R&D in the field of forestry, in terms of costs per hectare of land, covered with forest vegetation, were spent in US dollars: US – 4.7, Canada – 1.6, Russia – 0.01, Finland – 2.8. It has been shown that the level of R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP Russia 1,16% (ranked 32st in the world).
Keywords: research and development (R&D), forestry, forest research, foreign countries, R&D costs, expenditure.
Human Society and Nature
Global Studies as an Interdisciplinary Field of Scientific Knowledge
A.N. Chumakov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Philosoph.), the Presidium of the Russian Ecological Academy, the Institute of Philosophy, RAS
The article substantiates the proposition that the system of contemporary scientific knowledge global studies occupies a special position. It is not like any one of the specific disciplines, as it is integrative, interdisciplinary knowledge of socio-natural processes and problems, the boundaries of which are set by the scale of the planet. In contrast to the individual sciences, dealing with one or another fragment (aspect) of reality, globalistics aims to solve complex, vital to all mankind problems, to cope with which is possible only through interdisciplinary interaction.
Keywords: global studies, science, globalization, global problems, knowledge, culture, people.
Calendar of Events
RESOLUTION of the International Symposium «Biodiagnostics and Evaluation of the Quality of the Natural Environment: Approaches, Methods, Criteria and Standards of Comparison in Ecotoxicology»
The Role of Monitoring and Protection of City Lands and Territories in the Development of the Discipline «Monitoring and Protection of the Urban Environment» in Specialist Training in the Field of Development of Territories