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2016 / 3

NATURE

 

Common Problems of Nature Management

About the Draft of the State Report «On Condition and Protection of the Environment of the Russian Federation in 2015»

N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc. (Econom.), E.V. Muravyeva, D.A. Boriskin, National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

The article is devoted to the preparation and release of the State Report «On Condition and Protection of the Environment of the Russian Federation in 2015». There are done detailed analysis of the initial formation and development of these important public documents reflecting the results of the policy in the field of nature protection and rational nature management. The characteristic of the most important features of the Report-2015 in comparison with similar reports for previous years is done too. The presented material is illustrated with specific numerical data and graphs.

Keywords: environment, the Russian Federation, national report, environment of the region, the environmental problems at the Federal level, individual types of natural resources, protected areas, biodiversity, indicators of negative impact on the environment, the reliability of environmental information.

Mineral Resources

Accounting for Groundwater when Establishing Water Balances in the Schemes of Complex Use and Protection of Water Objects

М.М. Cherepansky, Dr.Sc. (Geology), the Russian Geological Exploration University

The article is devoted the questions of usage of groundwater in the preparation of water balances to assess available water resources the schemes of complex use and protection of water objects (SKIOVO) for major river basins of Russia have the deficit of water resources and strained water balance. There are proved necessity and are presented basic principles of accounting in the water balances when preparing the SKIOVO the degree of correlation of underground and surface waters. The methods of accounting of hydrological and hydrogeological structure of river basin, hydrological characteristics of rivers and reservoirs, parameters of water intakes and mode of water groundwater use (retrospective, current and prospective) to build numerical schemes and models are considered.

Keywords: groundwater resources, groundwater use, coefficients of reduction in surface runoff when groundwater abstraction, hydrogeological structure, hydrological characteristics, schemes of complex use and protection of water objects (SKIOVO).

 

Water Resources

Marshes and Marsh Resources of the Altai Republic

L.I. Inisheva, the Correspond.-Memb. of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAN), the Tomsk State Pedagogical University, G.V. Larina, Can.Sc. (Chemistry), the Gorno-Altai State University

The mires of Altay Mountains still remain not studied. However exactly this region of the world is unique in terms of the peat formation processes. On the territory of the Republic Altay more than 60 mires were studied in different geomorphology-climatic conditions. The authors made a comparative analysis of the mire features in the North, Central and South-East Altay. The peat samples data formed with the application of the radiocarbon method show that the active peat formation began at the end of the Boreal and at the beginning of the Sub-Boreal periods. At present it is very important to find the most valuable mountain mires in terms of environment and classify them in the Global Environment Research Fund.

Keywords: the Republic Altay, mires of mountains, peat formation, peat resources, swampy vegetation, data formed with the application of the radiocarbon method, Global Environment Research Fund.

Land Resources and Soils

Application of Phytotest in Ecological Soil Science

V.A. Terekhova, Dr.Sc. (Biology), L.P. Voronina, Dr.Sc. (Biology), O.A. Kalmatskaya, A.P. Kiryushina, the Moscow State University, P.V. Uchanov, the Institute of the Problems of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, O.V. Nikolaeva, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Soil-Ecological Center, the Moscow State University, T.V. Bardina, Can.Sc. (Biology), the St. Petersburg Scientific Research Centre for Ecological Safety, RAS, V.D. Kreslavskiy, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, RAS, G.K. Vasilyeva, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute Physico-Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, RAS

Work on land management and cadastre as engineering works include a number of technological processes. In the process of training of specialists in this sphere within the framework of engineering education and in their production activities must rely on complex ecological and ethical principles and requirements. In the article there are showed the possible solutions to this problem when updating the federal standards to direct «Land Management and Cadastre», the development of professional standards and the preparation of local regulations. The next task is to ensure proper monitoring of compliance with ecological and ethical principles and requirements in the cadastre and land management areas.

Keywords: land management, engineering education, inventory (cadastr), expertise, direction of «Land Management and Cadastre», technological updating, professional standards, self-regulatory organizations, ecological and ethical principles.

Forest Resources

Forest Fire Risks in the Baikal Region on the Republic of Buryatia Example

T.A. Borisovа, Can.Sc. (Engin.), the Baikal Institute of Nature Management, the Siberian Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences (BINM SB RAS)

The article analyzes the dynamics of forest fires in the Baikal region at the example of the Republic of Buryatia for seventy years period. Based on the official statistics the damage caused by forest fires and the actual state funding to ensure fire safety was analyzed too. There are outlined the main natural and anthropogenic factors of fire hazard and the main causes of fires in the region. The forest fire risks’ mapping was carried out on the basis of specific indicators, the calculation of which is made with the vulnerability parameter. The maps were drawn up, which reflect the level of prevalence of forest fires in the year’s dynamics. The range of problems was revealed based on the obtained results’ analysis, which made it possible to formulate and propose some recommendations to reduce forest fires’ risks.

Keywords: forest fires, damages, fire risks factors, causes of burning, risks mapping, affection of forest fires.

 

Biodiversity

Biological Diversity of Tenebrionid fauna (Insecta: Tenebrionidae) in the Major Ecological Hubs of the Crimea’s Regional Ecological Network

V.B. Pyshkin, Can.Sc. (Biology), I.L. Prygunova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Crimean Branch, the Russian Ecological Academy, the Crimean Federal University, the Branch of the Moscow State University in Sevastopol

Database of taxonomy, ecology, biology and chorology of Tenibrionidae insects of the Crimea created under the program called CrimІnsecta made it possible to discover the entomological complexes of the ecological system of major ecological hubs in the regional ecological network of the peninsula and to explore the structure and peculiarities of how these complexes are built. It also helped to appreciate these species’ richness and taxonomic abundance, hierarchical diversity, typicality and complexity.

Keywords: the Crimea, entomological, insects, hierarchical diversity, complexity, typicality.

 

Biological Resources of Land

The Functionality of Relative Population Estimates Moose in Resource Management

V.M. Glushkov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Russian Research Institute of Game Management and Fur Farming (FSBI VNIIS)

In the experiment, annual (1970-1980), the information hunters on the number of moose (Alces alces L.) in points and estimates of the absolute abundance data of winter route accounting used to analyze the relative quality of evaluations, their functionality missing in the calculation of absolute abundance estimates when simulating periodic, with interval of 4-10 years, conducting these accounting. Confirmed the validity of the transition from annual surveys of absolute abundance to a periodic one account in 5 years, in conjunction with the annual relative counts. An example of functionality relative estimate and satisfactory process ability in the calculations of population and economic parameters, with a deliberately reduced labor and material cost of the data, confirms the appropriateness of their use in monitoring the state of resources of hunting animals.

Keywords: moos, frequency of winter surveys, functionality, adaptability to manufacture, relative estimates.

 

The Problem of Use and Cultivation of GM Soya in Russia

V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Director, the Russian Centre of Agromarketing «Agroprognoz», N.N. Rybalsky, Can.Sc. (Biology), the senior researcher, the Soil Geography Department, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article explains the use of soy in solving food security issues. There is made a short review of genetic plants research in agriculture. The propagation of GM soy in Russia and in the world is showed too. Analyzed the question of the appropriateness of the use of transgenic soybean varieties, reviewed the market of food products produced from genetically modified soy. There is posed the problem of the import of products from soybeans, in most cases produced using GMOs. Discussed the feasibility of a legislative ban of GM soy cultivation in Russia. Also there is considered the possibility of GM food and feed import, and soybean production to ensure food security of Russia.

Keywords: natural soy, non-GMO, GM soy, GMO soybeans, soybeans in Russia, growing soy, food security, soybean market, the food problem, a protein deficit, a development strategy soy production, soy cluster, social and cultural phenomenon.

Climatic Resources

Climatic Features of the Black Sea Coast and their Changes due to El Niño Events

V.N. Maslova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), E.V. Vishkvarkova, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), O.Yu. Kovalenko, the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, RAS (Sevastopol)

Using data set on 1000 hPa geopotential height, air temperature and precipitation in the region of the Black Sea coast of Russia the typical climatic conditions and their linear trends for the 63-year period, starting from the second half of the 20th century were studied. There are identified main variability scales of cyclonic parameters, air temperature and precipitation. Manifestations of two types of El Niño in the considered parameters were studied too.

Keywords: change of climate, cyclones, air temperature, precipitation, the Black Sea coast of Russia, El Niño

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Forage Base Characteristic of Sable Population in the State Nature Reserve «Yugansky» and its Long-Years Dynamics

V.M. Pereyaslovets, the senior researcher, the State Nature Reserve «Yugansky», V.P. Starikov V.P., Prof.-Dr. (Biology), the Head, the Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, the Surgut State University

This article describes the features of feeding sable (Martes zibellina L.) population in state nature reserve «Yugansky». The authors collected a scats of sable during the period 1988-2015 (n=780). Sable’s diet was determined on the basis of scat content analysis. In the ration of sable is dominate by animal feed. This predator eats more than 20 species of animals and plants. Forage base for sable population in nature reserve «Yugansky» is very good.

Keywords: State Nature Reserve «Yugansky», sable, feeding, ration, forage base, analysis, dynamics.

 

Environmental Protection

The Problem of Municipal Solid Waste and Statistics (Continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 2, 2016)

A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc. (Economy), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», A.A. Romanov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Economy), JSC «The Federal Institute of Certification and Assessment of Intellectual Property and Business»

The article deals with the statistical reflection of the treatment of municipal solid waste, MSW. There is done brief statistical analysis of the main trends prevailing in Russia and other countries. Lows adopted in our country in recent years and government regulations to improve the situation are studied; an assessment of their impact on the reform of the MSW statistics is done too. Also is disclosed the organization and methodology to obtain the necessary information in the OECD/Eurostat, as well as in the United States. At the end of the article are formulated comments and suggestions.

Keywords: municipal solid waste (MSW), legislation in the field of solid waste, eco financial charges, statistical analysis, organization MSW statistics, international experience and practice, inter-state comparisons.

Geodesy and Cartography

Geographical Analysis of the Canges in the Red Book of the Russian Federation in the Issues of Exclusion Certain Species

E.A. Kravets, Can.Sc. (Enginer.), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

In this article spatial analysis of planned changes in the Red Book of the Russian Federation with regard to the exclusion of certain species is made. The individual situation of danger for the species have been identified. These situations require careful attention and analysis from the scientific community and governments in the field of environmental protection, to make better informed decisions in terms of their protection

Keywords: Red Book species, protected areas, protected species, endemic species, danger.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

International Cooperation

The Contribution of the Diaspora of the Russian Soil Scientists in the Development of Natural Sciences

V.S. Chesnokov, Can.Sc. (Econom.), the Commission on Development of Scientific Heritage Acad. V.I. Vernadsky, the Russian Academy of Sciences

The article is devoted to participation of Russian soil scientists-emigrants – conductors Dokuchaev’s ideas (V. K. Agafonov, P. V. Ototsky, S. N. Vinogradsky, V. A. Kostitsyn, etc.) in the development of the natural sciences.

Keywords: soil science, scientific biography, soil scientists-emigrants, Dokuchaev’s ideas.

 

Human Society and Nature

Analysis of the Socio-Ecological Characteristics of Visitors of the Ergaki Nature Park (Krasnoyarsk Region)

E.S. Shestakova, Can.Sc. (Pedagog.), A.N. Rudyk, the Crimean Federal University, A.V. Berlyakova, Can.Sc. (Pedagog.), the Siberian Federal University, I.V. Gryazin, the Director, the Ergaki Nature Park

The authors analyse recreational needs and degree of satisfaction of visitors of Ergaki Nature Park on the basis of sociological research made in 2015. The article shows the dynamics of the visitors’ needs in parallel with measures taken by the park management for recreational development of protected area comparing data of 2008 and 2015. Moreover the recommendations are provided to improve recreation management of Ergaki Nature Park.

Keywords: recreation management, Ergaki Nature Park, sociological research, questionnaire survey, protected area visitors, recreational needs, recreation facilities construction, socio-environmental characteristics, psychological and behavioral characteristics.

Calendar of Events

The Results of the Congress of Soil Scientists in Russia

I.N. Lyubimova, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Society of Soil Science, the Soil Institute, S.A. Shoba, Correspod.-Memb. of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAN), the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article is devoted to held August 15-22, 2016 in the city of Belgorod on the basis of the Belgorod State National Research University the VII Congress of the Dokuchaev Society of Soil Scientists

Keywords: soil science, Society of Soil Scientists, soil, soil cover, soil condition, degradation and conservation of soils.

 

Bookshelf

Thoughts about the Book Seidakhmet Kuttykadam «Dao Of Altai. The Source of Human Civilization»

V.A. Ponko, Prof.-Dr.Sc (Engin.), Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the Academician, the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (RANS)

Бюллетень

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