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2016 / 2

№2 2016

NATURE

Common Problems of Nature Management

Natural Hazards and Risk Indicators in the Crimean Federal District

E.I. Ignatov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Russian Ecological Academy, A.A. Novikov, E.S. Kashirina, A.V. Kalinichenko, the Branch of Moscow State University in Sevastopol

The article provides an overview of natural hazards and resulting emergencies that are typical to Crimean Federal District – Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol. Natural hazards are analyzed on the basis of their genesis classification. Based on the analysis results, areas of the natural hazards’ localization are discovered and risk indicators are provided.

Keywords: emergency, natural risks, natural hazards, geomorphologic processes, landslides, landfalls, karst, Crimea, Sevastopol.

Mineral Resources

The Exploration Abroad: Retrospective and Perspectives

S.V. Belov, Dr.Sc. (Geolog.), the Limited Liability Company «OZGEO»

The article is dedicated to more than half a century of exploration abroad. Shown as organizational her conduct was formalized. Named executives exploration abroad, from the head of the first expedition to foreign works to the general director of Open Joint Stock Company «Zarubezhgeologiya». There is described the role of local geologists to identify and follow-up exploration of large ore deposits. Examples are described in detail the history of discoveries of large deposits of mercury in Algeria, iron, manganese and coal in Iran, tantalum in Ethiopia. It is emphasized that in the context of globalization of the mineral resources sector, the historical experience of geological work abroad is especially valuable.

Keywords: history of OJSC «Zarubezhgeologiya», exploration abroad, large deposits, Algeria, Iran, Ethiopia, Mozambique.

Water Resources

On the Procedure for Drawing up and Updating the List of Environmentally Hazardous Substances Entering the Surface Water Bodies

L.S. Ponomareva, the Centre for Analysis and Anthropogenic Impacts, the Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resource Management, V.N. Kuzmich, Can.Sc. (Biology), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

The procedure for compiling and updating the list of environmentally hazardous substances in the water, surface water bodies provides criteria for classifying chemicals to environmentally hazardous substances, which flow into water bodies should be avoided or be subject to strict controls. The procedure is aimed at the organization of informing of public oversight and control about use of hazardous substances in the Russian Federation and their entering the water bodies in the fulfillment by the Russian side of obligations assumed under international conventions.

Keywords: water bodies, environmentally hazardous substances, strategic documents, obligations, international conventions, classification criteria list, procedure for compiling, updating, use of materials, supervision, control, information.

Land Resources and Soils

Ecological and Ethical Principles and Requirements for the Preparation of Specialists in the Sphere of Land Management and Inventories, and their Activities

A.P. Sizov, Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Head, the Department of Cadastre and Land Law Foundations, the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

Work on land management and cadastre as engineering works include a number of technological processes. In the process of training of specialists in this sphere within the framework of engineering education and in their production activities must rely on complex ecological and ethical principles and requirements. In the article there are showed the possible solutions to this problem when updating the federal standards to direct «Land Management and Cadastre», the development of professional standards and the preparation of local regulations. The next task is to ensure proper monitoring of compliance with ecological and ethical principles and requirements in the cadastre and land management areas.

Keywords: land management, engineering education, inventory (cadastr), expertise, direction of «Land Management and Cadastre», technological updating, professional standards, self-regulatory organizations, ecological and ethical principles.

Forest Resources

Integrated Development of Forest Resources

V.I. Kashin, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the State Duma Committee on Natural Resources, Natural Resources Management and Ecology

There is the Report of the Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Natural Resources, Natural Resources Management and Ecology, the Academician V.I. Kashin in the All-Russian Conference «Results of the Forestry Development of the Russian Federation in 2015 and Tasks for 2016» (Moscow, Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, April 14, 2016).

Keywords: woods, forest resources, forestry, timber industry, the raw material potential of forests, forest use, forest management and inventory, reforestation, forest legislation.

Biological Resources of Land

The Role of Soybean in Ensuring the Food Security of Russia

V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc (Biology), the Director, the Russian Centre of Agromarketing «Agroprognoz», N.N. Rybalskiy, Can.Sc (Biology), the senior researcher, the Soil Geography Department, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article explains the consideration of soybean as a major agricultural biological resource. There is explained the concept of food security and the importance of plant protein in the solution of food problems on the example of high-protein soybean culture. It is shown that the negative attitude to soy in Russian sociocultural space is connected, first of all, to the lack of awareness about the benefits of soy products and on the current situation with GM products in Russia. There are done estimates the demand for soybeans and import data in comparison to Russian soybeans production. Also is discussed the soybean strategy of Russia.

Keywords: food security in Russia, soybean, bioresources, soybean market, food resources, protein deficit, sociocultural phenomenon, natural soybean, soybean in Russia, soybean cultivation, soybean import and export, soybean strategy.

 

The Present State of the Natural Flora of Monocotyledonеs in the Mountain Dagestan

A.I. Khizrieva, the Dagestan State University

The analysis of the class monocotyledonеs in the basin flora (Kazikumukhskoe Koisu river, Mountain Dagestan) is given in this article. Species with special status are pointed too.

Keywords: class monocotyledonеs, basin flora, Dagestan.

 

Climatic Resources

Long-term Changes of Meteorological Parameters in the Amur Basin

J.V. Kuzmina, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Institute of Water Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences, S.E. Treshkin, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations

For the Amur basin is studied long-term annual, semi-annual and seasonal dynamics of humid-temperature conditions based on analysis of the cumulative effect of changes in temperature and precipitation in their trends for long-term period (54-174 years, i.e. since the opening of stations for 2013). This study is based on daily observations of 19 meteorological stations of the WMO. A comparison of the data with the three weather stations Lena basin is done too. Also it is identified the basic long-term climate change in the Amur basin.

Keywords: average air temperature, total precipitation, aridity index of D.A. Ped, modified index of aridity of D.A. Ped, climate change.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Evaluation of Ecosystem Services of Special Protected Areas and Parks

K.S. Bodrov, the postgraduate, A.S. Yakovlev, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Head, O.V. Semenyuk, Can.Sc. (Biology), the senior researcher, the Department of Land Resources Assessment and Valuation of Soils, the Soil Science Faculty, the Moscow State University.

The concept of «sustainable development» envisages that use natural capital (ecosystem assets) should be sustainable and rational, as well as the provision and consumption of ecosystem services. In this connection the article provides defini­tions of the main categories of sustainable development with regard to the protection of nature in general and on specially protected natural areas in particular. There are described in detail the existing methodological approaches to identification and assessment of ecosystems and ecosystem (environmental) services. The article considers basic principles of the cost assessment of the services, including provided specially protected natural areas.

Keywords: ecosystem services, economic evaluation of ecosystem services, ecological functions of soils, services of protected areas and parks.

 

Environmental Protection

The Problem of Municipal Solid Waste and Statistics

A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc. (Economy), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», A.A. Romanov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Economy), JSC «The Federal Institute of Certification and Assessment of Intellectual Property and Business»

The article deals with the statistical reflection of the treatment of municipal solid waste, MSW. There is done brief statistical analysis of the main trends prevailing in Russia and other countries. Lows adopted in our country in recent years and government regulations to improve the situation are studied; an assessment of their impact on the reform of the MSW statistics is done too. Also is disclosed the organization and methodology to obtain the necessary information in the OECD/ Eurostat, as well as in the United States. At the end of the article are formulated comments and suggestions.

Keywords: municipal solid waste (MSW), legislation in the field of solid waste, eco financial charges, statistical analysis, organization MSW statistics, international experience and practice, inter-state comparisons.

 

Geodesy and Cartography

Mapping of Rare Species of Lichens

A.A. Prisyazhnaya, Can.Sc. (Biology), V.R. Khrisanov, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), G.V. Mitenko, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), V.V. Snakin, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, RAS

The new cartographic materials on distribution of the rare species of lichens in the territory of Russia are presented. The territories of the Caucasus, Altai and Sayan Mountains, areas of the Lake Baikal, the southern part of the Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, Primorye region and Chukotka Peninsula are determined as regions with the highly of species biodiversity of rare lichens. Territories of the Western and Central Siberia, southwest and southern parts of Russia are characterized by the minimum concentration of species of the protected lichens. The assessment of the all lichens species biodiversity in borders of subjects of the Russian Federation is carried out. It is shown that the highest species biodiversity of lichens is noted in the North Caucasus and in the Central part of Russia, minimum – in steppe regions of Russia.

Keywords: lichens, species biodiversity, the Russian Federation Red Data Book, IUCN Red List, list of rare and endan­gered species, categories of rare status.

 

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

Anniversaries

From the Scientific Research Institute of Protection and Rational Use of Natural Resources to the Institute of Steppe of the Ural Branch, RAS

A.G. Ryabukha, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), the scientific secretary, T.N. Savinova, Can.Sc. (History), the research associate, the Laboratory of Biogeography and Monitoring of Biodiversity, the Institute of Steppe, the Ural Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences

The article is devoted to history of creation of Institute of the Steppe which is the only academic geographical institute in the Urals and in the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. During the work the Institute became the world leader in the field of complex fundamental studying of problems of a steppe zone of Eurasia. The main attention is paid to results of the conducted researches of both the Institute, and the organizations-predecessors on which scientific base it has been organized, in the field of studying and conservation of steppes.

Keywords: Institute of Steppe, conservation of the steppe, Orenburg Research Institute of Protection and Rational Use of Natural Resources, Laboratory of Melioration of Landscapes and Conservation of the Orenburg Agricultural Institute, Orenburg Department of Steppe Environmental Management, A.A. Chibilyov.

 

International Cooperation

The Russian-Chinese Cooperation in the Field of Use and Protection of Transboundary Water Objects: Experience and Problems

M.V. Bolgov, Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), A.P. Demin, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), K.Y. Shatalova, Can.Sc. (Engineer.), the Water Problems Institute, the Russian Academy of Science

The basic questions considered at session of in common Russian-Chinese commission about rational use and protection of transboundary waters and its working groups are shown. It presents the findings of a joint report of the experts of the parties on the causes and development of the 2013 flood in the basin Amur River. Revealed huge differences in the intensity of use of water resources in the Russian and Chinese parts of the basin Amur River. The conclusion is that even if the diver­gence of views and the presence of contradictions in the use and protection of transboundary water resources, institutional mechanisms allow overcoming the differences between the parties.

Keywords: transboundary water objects, the Russian-Chinese commission, deficiency of water resources, monitoring of water objects, the Amur River, the Irtysh River.

 

Regional Events

An Eergency Situation Related to Forest Fires in Kobjajsky Ulus of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic

S.N. Levchikova, A.M. Salva, Can.Sc. (Geology), the Mining Institute, the North-Eastern Federal University (Yakutsk)

The article deals with a brief description of the geographical Kobjajsky Ulus (District) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, where the July 15, 2014 was introduced a state of emergency related forest fires. There are data on the number of forest fires, the areas covered by the fire, and calculated the material damage caused during the period 2011-2015 to the local population’s.

Keywords: forest fire, fire area, material damage, emergency (disaster), Kobjajsky Ulus, the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.

 

Human Society and Nature

Social Consequences and Adaptation of Population to Climate Changes

I.A. Sosunova, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Sociolog.), the Vice-President, the Russian Society of Sociologists

This article considers actual issues of social consequences of global recession of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation of socium to climate changes. Results of empirical sociological research are presented.

Keywords: аnthropogenic ecological factors, gender, climate changes, public opinion, sanctions, ecological situation.

 

Calendar of Events

International, national and regional scientific and technical meetings, conferences, symposia, meetings, seminars, schools and exhibitions of natural resource and environmental orientation (June, 2016)

 

Bookshelf

Ecological Culture

A.G. Ishkov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), N.G. Rybalskaya, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology.), V.A. Grachev, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Engineer.), the Corr.-Member, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Presidium of the Russian Ecological Academy.

 

Бюллетень

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