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2016 / 1

№1 2016

 

NATURE

 

Common Problems of Nature Management

Ecosystem Accounting – the Development of the System of National Accounts and the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting

A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc. (Economy), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», the Presidium of the Russian Ecological Academy

The article reveals the essence and the basic elements of the ecosystem accounting as an inseparable part of the system of national accounts and satellite systems of environmental and economic accounting (SEEA). A study carried out on the basis of the recommendations of the European Commission, OECD, UN and World Bank – paper «Experimental Ecosystem Accounting» of the SEEA Central Framework in the version of 2012. In the article is analyzed in detail the conceptual and terminological apparatus proposed in the study of the ecosystem with global accounting positions and in relation to the realities of Russia. There are described the categories of assets and ecosystem services; disclosed the main approaches for their money valuation.

Keywords: ecosystem accounting, the system of national accounts, international statistical standard «System of environmental-economic accounting» (SEEA), ecosystem assets and services, benefice, valuations of ecosystem assets and ecosystem services, ecosystem accounts.

Mineral Resources

Shale Hydrocarbons: Realities and Myths

L.V. Oganesyan, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Geology), the Russian Geological Society

This article analyzes the actual situation with geological reserves of shale hydrocarbons, their use, as well as appearing a set of direct and indirect effects. This analysis is based mainly on foreign materials, including the United States, Canada, number of European countries and others. There is studied intelligibility and objectivity use of the conceptual and terminological apparatus. The estimation of the so-called «shale revolution» is done; there is characterized by environmental issues too. Author presents forecasts for the future at the end of the article.

Keywords: shale hydrocarbons, evaluation and classification of geological reserves, «shale revolution», environmental protection, incentives, forecasts.

 

Water Resources

Problems of Efficiency of the Water Use of Water Bodies in the European Part of Russia (The continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 6, 2015)

V.F. Ladigin, Closed Joint Stock Company «Sovintervod», Yu.G. Bogomolov, Can.Sc. (Geology), S.M. Golubev, Can.Sc. (Geology), the Board of the Russian Union of Hydrogeologists

The article analyzes the current situation in the water sector of Russia, and in particular, in the European part of the country (EP). The reasons are revealed that caused the crises in the water sector and environmental complex of EP. The effective form of water sector management is proposed as well as the form of management of the environmental complex, which is based on a single, centralized management model lined up vertically.

Keywords: water resources, water bodies, water fund, water management system, water sector, water management, water supply, water management and environmental protection.

Land Resources and Soils

Agro Exchange in Russia

V.A. Dolginova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Director, the Russian Centre of Agromarketing «Agroprognoz», N.N. Rybalskiy, Can.Sc. (Biology), the senior researcher, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article provides an overview of the situation in the field of agricultural products (commodities) exchange trade in Russia and in the world. It presents information about trading and provides the explanation for the necessity of institutionalized agro exchange in Russia. Also there is provided analysis of existing financial instruments in the agricultural market and identified the main characteristics of present market relations in the agricultural sector. It is proposed to start an educational activities among farmers through the example of «Agroprognoz» project.

Keywords: agro exchange (agricultural commodity exchange), agrobusiness, agro-industrial market, exchange trade, agro forecast, options, futures, investments, government intervention of grain, education, farmer.

 

Forest Resources

The Purpose and Policy of Management of State Forests

A.I. Pisarenko, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the President of the Russian Society of Foresters, V.V. Strakhov, Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the All-Russian Research Institute for Forestry and Mechanization (VNIILM), the Federal Agency of Forestry (Rosleshoz)

The article is multidimensional and contains analysis of the practice of forestry in Russia and proposals to improve forest management. The authors believe that the goal of forest management in the country should be defined by law. It is emphasized that long term planning objectives of forest management are ignored while planning and controlling the activities of the state authorities. It is shown that controllability of a forest to an even greater extent than before, depends on the quality of information on forests, resulting from forest management. The authors note the importance of maintaining a balance between the almost unlimited independence of forest policy specialists and detailed regulation of forest management. The authors propose to revive the governors «Committees of forests protection» and the annual «Forestry congresses».

Keywords: forest management, forest regulation, rules of forest management, committees of forests protection, annual forest congresses.

 

Biological Resources of Land

Productivity of Natural Forage Lands of Russia

I.A. Trofimov, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), L.S. Trofimova, Can.Sc. (Agricult.), E.P. Yakovleva, the All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute

Being one of the main biosphere components, forage ecosystems perform important production, environment stabilizing and environmental functions in agricultural landscapes, and have a significant influence on the ecological state of the country. Therefore, the main task is to collect and preserve (to mobilize) the unique, rich gene pool of forage grasses that grow on natural forage lands of Russia. It is noted that the increase production of livestock products requires the increase productivity of natural pastures and hayfields. There is recurred to create cultural pastures and hayfields, as is common in many developed countries too. It is necessary to restore their habitat and environmental functions in agricultural landscapes.

Keywords: natural grasslands, forage ecosystems, natural pastures, hayfields, productivity.

 

Biological Resources of Water

Development of Navigation Route under the Control of the Implementation Requirements of Administrative Regulations in the Sphere of Conservation of Marine Biological Resources

F.V. Rudkin, the Murmansk State Technical University

In the article considers a special class of algebraic structure functions and their arguments, that may be used in compiling of the navigation route necessary for the implementation of controls in the framework of the administrative regulations in the sphere of conservation of marine biological resources.

Keywords: administrative regulations, navigation route, structure, system, control.

 

Climatic Resources

Adaptation to Climate Change for Biodiversity Conservation

O.N. Lipka, Can.Sc. (Geograp.), A.O. Kokorin, Can.Sc. (Physic. and Mathem.), WWF-Russia

The paper provides a review of the basic approaches and characteristics of climate change adaptation activities aimed at biodiversity conservation at the global, national, regional and local levels. In adaptation efforts designed for environmental protection there is a new goal, yet use old methods: conservation of species and prevention of ecosystems degradation in abnormally fast changing environment. Furthermore, it is important to adapt to dangerous effects and meteorological events that are typical for a specific location, rather than to temperature increases. The paper presents some findings which show that adaptation to species’ and ecosystems’ conservation is not at all inconsistent with sustainable development or human needs in changing climate conditions.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, biodiversity, sustainable development.

 

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Areas

Analysis of the Development of the Recreational Areas of the Crimea (The continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 6, 2015)

I.L. Prygunova, Can.Sc.(Geograph.), V.B. Pyshkin, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Crimean Branch, the Russian Ecological Academy, the Branch of Moscow State University in Sevastopol city, the Crimean Federal University

This article describes the development of recreational areas of the Crimea for the period of the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of this century. The recreational area is considered an integral part of the emerging ecological frame of Crimea and directly depending on its quality. There is provided information on the structure of natural-reserved fund (complex) of Crimea, recreational resources, streams of visitors and blocks the emerging ecological frame of Crimea for the period.

Keywords: recreation, recreational resources, recreational areas of the Crimea, ecological framework, nature reserve fund, protected areas of the Crimea.

 

Environmental Protection

Organochlorine Hydrocarbons in the Components of the Sevastopol Bays at the beginning of the XXI cent.

L.V. Malahova, Can.Sc. (Biology), T.V. Malahova, Can.Sc. (Biology), V.N. Egorov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Academician, the National Academy of Sciences, S.B. Gulin, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), I.G. Sidorov, the Institute of Marine Biological Studies, the Russian Academy of Sciences, E.I. Ignatov, Prof.-Dr.Sc., the Black Sea Branch, the Moscow State University, the Crimean Branch, the Russian Ecological Academy

In the article distribution features of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-chlorophenyl-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites in the water, hydrobionts and bottom sediments of the Sevastopol Bays have been studied in 2002‑2010. Currently organochlorine compounds (OCs) concentration in water of Sevastopol marine area is decreased by several orders of magnitude compared to the eighties of last century, when max contamination level of PCBs was determined as 300 ng/L. Significant contamination of sediments by PCBs (up to 234 ng/g dry weight) and DDTs (up to 64 ng/g dry weight) is associated with impact of the OCs sources and high content of clay fraction in sediments which is peculiar to accumulate pollutants. Determined fluctuations of PCB5 concentration in the Sevastopol Bays sediments caused by different anthropogenic impact intensity in the past decades.

Keywords: anthropogenic impact, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, mussels, bottom sediment, Sevastopol bays.

 

Geodesy and Cartography

Natural and Anthropogenic Factors of the Environment and the Health of Children of the Crimea

E.I. Ignatov, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Black Sea Branch, the Moscow State University, the Russian Ecological Academy, E.V. Yaseneva, Can.Sc. (Geograph.), I.A. Yaseneva, the Crimean Branch, the Russian Ecological Academy

According to the results of morbidity in geographic sections showed that the level of disease in various nosological forms there is significant regional differentiation in the Crimea. To improve the health of the population in the Crimea it is necessary to continue research to identify correlations between the environment and the stress regulatory mechanisms, morbidity and life expectancy and overall physical development especially in children and adolescents.

Keywords: environment, human health, environmental monitoring, environmental situation, the analysis of medico-ecological situations, child morbidity, ranking territories.

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

 

Anniversaries

Good Will, Enlightened View on Business and Love for the Earth (to the 170th anniversary of V.V. Dokuchaev)

S.Y. Livantsova, Y.I. Maksimov, the Earth Science Museum, the Moscow State University, N.G. Rybalskiy, the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», V.V. Snakin, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences

V.V. Dokuchaev – an outstanding Russian scientist naturalist. His scientific work he devoted to complex research processes of emergence and development of a «special natural body» – the soil. The publication of his «Russian chernozem» fundamental works marked the birth of a new science – genetic soil science. Museum of Earth Sciences is actively involved in the dissemination and promotion of Dokuchaev ideas in the field of conservation of natural heritage. Some of the findings and ideas of Dokuchaev confirmed by statistical data land censuses in the Russian Empire.

 

International Experience

The State’s Environmental Politics in New Zealand (The continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 6, 2015)

A.Yu. Kouzminov, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute for Natural Waters of New Zealand

In the article the author gave an overview of environmental regulations, government strategies and programmes in New Zealand, regarding sustainable management of natural resources.

Keywords: environmental regulation, environmental policy, environmental strategy, environmental programmes, natural resources, New Zealand.

 

Human Society and Nature

Steppes of Eurasia: Stages of Development and Results

A.I. Klimentyev, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Agricult.), the Laboratory of Geoecology and Landscape Scheduling, the Institute of the Steppe, the Ural Branch, the Russian Academy of Science

Three ethnoses, Huns, Turki and Mongols, for whom the Great Steppe was the ecological base, are examined accordingly to the ethnogenesis concept by L.N. Gumilev. Their economy influenced the natural state of components of geosystems: forests and soils. The attention is paid to the Mongol raid on Rus, to its negative and positive influence on the Russian originality combining Occidental and Oriental elements, which embodied later through the practice of the Russian State.

Keywords: the Great Steppe, ethnogenesis of L.N. Gumilyov, Huns, Turks, Mongols, Russian identity (originality), natural «feeding» the landscape, natural resources.

Calendar of Events

International, national and regional scientific and technical meetings, conferences, symposia, meetings, seminars, schools and exhibitions of natural resource and environmental orientation (May, 2016)

 

Бюллетень

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