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2015 / 6

NATURE

Common Problems of Nature Management

Preservation and Development of the Recreational Potential of Russian Forests

V.I. Kashin, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the State Duma Committee on Natural Resources, Environment and Ecology

According to the materials of speeches by the Chairman of Natural Resources of the State Duma Committee, Environment and Ecology, V.I. Kashin at the parliamentary hearings on the theme «Actual problems of legal regulation of recreational activities, tourism, recreation of citizens in forests and ensuring public forest management» (24 September 2015).

Keywords: recreation, recreational resources, recreational activities in forests, recreational potential of forests, recreation forests.

Mineral Resources

Dynamics of Environmental Responsibility Rating of Oil and Gas Companies, Operating in Russia, in 2013-2014

E.A. Shvarts, Dr.Sc. (Geograph.), the Director, A.Yu. Knizhnikov, the Head, the Environmental policy of power generation program, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) – Russia, A.M. Pakhalov, the Department of Economics, the Moscow State University, F.N. Kilzie, the CREON Energy

The purpose of the research is to compare and evaluate environmental responsibility of oil and gas companies operating in Russia, and the dynamics of relevant indicators in 2013-2014. Research methodology is based on comprehensive analysis of qualitative and quantitative indicators of the companies’ activities broken down to three segments: eco-management, environmental impact, and information disclosure. The results of 2015 shows a certain increase in the average rating value, which testifies to the overall improvement of the industry performance, at least as far as information disclosure is concerned. Peculiar characteristic of 2015 rating is the significant improvement of information disclosure by the majority of companies.

Keywords: oil and gas industry, environmental responsibility, rating, environmental management, environmental impact, disclosure of information, non-financial reporting.

Water Resources

Problems of Efficiency of the Water Use of Water Bodies in the European Part of Russia

V.F. Ladigin, Closed Joint Stock Company «Sovintervod», Yu.G. Bogomolov, Can.Sc. (Geology), S.M. Golubev, Can.Sc. (Geology), the Board of the Russian Union of Hydrogeologists

The article analyzes the current situation in the water sector of Russia, and in particular, in the European part of the country (EP). The reasons are revealed that caused the crises in the water sector and environmental complex of EP. The effective form of water sector management is proposed as well as the form of management of the environmental complex, which is based on a single, centralized management model lined up vertically.

Keywords: water resources, water bodies, water fund, water management system, water sector, water management, water supply, water management and environmental protection.

Land Resources and Soils

Methods of Valuation of the Damage Caused by Pollution of Soil and Land, Destruction and Damage to the Soil and the Loss of Soil Fertility (The continuous of the article. The beginning in bulletin № 5, 2015 )

O.E. Medvedeva, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Economy), the State University of Management, A.S. Yakovlev, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Department of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article is devoted to the issues of valuation of environmental damage caused by the destruction and degradation of soil. Soil is proposed as an economic asset and use valuation of them as a tool for conservation of soil resources. Shows the main shortcomings of the current methodology for assessing the damage caused by the soil. The authors propose an alternative option valuation of the damage and costs of lost components of soil fertility.

Keywords: soil, soil fertile, valuation, environmental damage, damage caused by soil.

Forest Resources

Forest Management and Development of Russian Forest Complex

A.I. Pisarenko, the Academician, the President of the Russian Society of Foresters, V.V. Strahov, Dr.Sc. (Agricul.), the All-Russian Research Institute for Forestry and Mechanization (VNIILM)

The authors consider the forest complex of Russia in terms of economic cooperation between the state forest and private forest industry enterprises (FIE) of the forest sector in the domestic economy. There is done exhaustive description FIE place in the economy of the country and in the world. It is shown that, despite the strategic competitive advantage of Russian forest complex in the world economic system, our country accounts for only 6% of the global harvest and 3% of the global timber trade. It is noted that the main problems are an inefficient use of national forest resources, such as low specific indicators removal of wood per hectare, low efficiency of the use of wood in its processing, and others. Considerable attention is also paid to the improvement of management of the forest complex. Specific proposals for the rationalization of forest management, forest protection ordering are formulated.

Keywords: timber industry enterprise, forest complex, disparities, sustainable management, international experience.

Land Biological Resources

Energy and Ecological Efficiency of Growing Chinese Silver Grass (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.) in Central Federal District of Russia

G.A. Bulatkin, Dr. Sc. (Biology), G.V. Mitenko, I.D. Gur’ev, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

The use of biomass for energy objectives gets more development in Largest Economies. Thus, in the countries of European Union about 3 % (65 million t.o.e.) of all energy demands is covered due to biomass, and in separate countries this index reaches 23 (Finland), 18 (Sweden) and 12% (Austria). This work shows prospects of growing perennial Chinese silver grass (Miscanthus sinensis Andеrss.) as a source of biomass for energy targets. It has been developed five model cultivation technologies, differed by planting density, the mechanization level, the use of means for weeds control, methods of irrigation. It has been estimated direct and indirect costs of technical energy for establishing fields, depreciation charges and annual energy expenditures for cultivation and harvesting. The results of growing Chinese silver grass on gray forest soils in Central Federal District of Russia for 4-years studies has been given.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, Chinese silver grass, plant biomass, energy efficiency, gray forest soils, Russia.

Biological Resources of Water

Influence of Acclimatization of the Far Eastern Invader Salmon on the Degradation of the Ecosystem «Pearl Mussel – Atlantic Salmon» in the Rivers of the White Sea

V.V. Ziuganov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Developmental Biology, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), A.E. Veselov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Biology, the Karelian Research Centre, RAS

The article describes the negative consequences of invasion of pink salmon in the basin of the White Sea on the local ecosystem «pearl mussel - salmon». The results of the fall of the number of the freshwater pearl mussel for the last 21 years, as well as data on the current number of pink salmon in the rivers of the White Sea are established. The measures including the protection of species of fish and mussels are discussed.

Keywords: O. gorbusha, White Sea Basin, rivers, pearl mussel, Atlantic salmon, protection of species.

Climatic Resources

The Assessment of Scots Pine Forest Plantations and Natural Restoration Using Methods of International Cooperative Program on Integrated Monitoring

G.L. Volkova, E.A. Pozdnyakova, A.A. Volkov, A.E. Kuhta, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, the Roshydromet and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)

Scots pine linear growth variability dynamics in plantations and natural undergrowth on the territory of Nikolskoe forest district territory (Penza region) using methods of International Cooperative Program on Integrated Monitoring is analyzed. The natural understory indexed growth courses similarity as well as natural and planted stands development diversity are shown. The absence of correlation between forest culture growth courses is found out. The lesser variability level of natural stands in comparison with planted tree stratum (just as for time series so for whole measurements package) is registered.

Keywords: linear increment, time course of growth, forest plantation, scots pine, International Co-operative Programme on Integrated Monitoring.

Recreational Resources and Special Protected Natural Territories

Analysis of the Development of the Recreational Areas of the Crimea

I.L. Prygunova, Can.Sc.(Geograph.), V.B. Pyshkin, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Crimean Branch, the Russian Ecological Academy, the Branch of Moscow State University in Sevastopol city, the Crimean Federal University

This article describes the development of recreational areas of the Crimea for the period of the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of this century. The recreational area is considered an integral part of the emerging ecological frame of Crimea and directly depending on its quality. There is provided information on the structure of natural-reserved fund (complex) of Crimea, recreational resources, streams of visitors and blocks the emerging ecological frame of Crimea for the period.

Keywords: recreation, recreational resources, recreational areas of the Crimea, ecological framework, nature reserve fund, protected areas of the Crimea.

Environmental Protection

The Problem of Standardization in the Environmental Performance and the Disturbance of the Natural Environment

S.A. Sladkopevtsev, the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography

There are done examples of applications and map-making of disturbance of nature. The preponderance of qualitative and absence of quantities indicators are exposed. Recommendations to extend ecological important maps of disturbance are giving too.

Keywords: disturbance of the natural environment, environmental assessment, environmental valuation, cartography, ecology.

Geodesy and Cartography

The Cartographic Analysis of Soil Diversity in State Network of Nature Reserved Areas of Russia

A.A. Prisyazhnaya, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), O.V. Chernova, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, V.V. Snakin, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Moscow State University, the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, RAS

Representation of Russian reserved areas network for conservation of natural soil diversity had been estimated on the base of cartographic information (Soils’ Map of Russia M: 1:2,5 mln). Different soils presentation in nature reserves and national parks was calculated by means of ArcView GIS system considering the number and areas of soil types and complexes. Carried out analysis has shown that 37 % of soils and 67 % of complexes from Soils’ Map legend are not represented in reserves and national parks. It was found, that reserve areas are irrationally allocated, there is notable discrepancy between the area of different soil groups in the country and within the protected territories. Therefore, the correction of a modern system of reserves and national parks is necessary.

Keywords: soil mapping, special natural protected areas, soil diversity, nature reserve, national park.

AUTHORITIES AND NATURE

In the Presidential Administration

In the Federal Assembly

In the Government

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

Anniversaries

On the 150th Anniversary of the Main Agricultural University of Russia

N.G. Rybalsky, Dr.Sc. (Biology), NIA-Priroda, the Presidium of the Russian Ecological Academy, E.V. Muraveva, NIA-Priroda

The presented paper is devoted to the 150th anniversary of the creation of the main agricultural university of the country – the Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Agricultural Academy in the name of K.A. Timiryazev (RSAU-MAA; RGAU-MAA in Russian). Due to the nature of the bulletin «The use and protection of natural resources in Russia» the emphasis in this paper is made primarily on the activities of well-known scientists of the University/Academy in natural sciences sphere.

Keywords: soil scientists, agronomists, meteorologists, botanists, breeders, physiologists of plants, foresters, microbiologists, agricultural chemists, agrophysics, reclamation, RGAU-MAA in the name of K.A. Timiryazev.

International Experience

The State’s Environmental Politics in New Zealand

A.Yu. Kouzminov, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Institute for Natural Waters of New Zealand

In the article the author gave an overview of environmental regulations, government strategies and programmes in New Zealand, regarding sustainable management of natural resources.

Keywords: environmental regulation, environmental policy, environmental strategy, environmental programmes, natural resources, New Zealand.

Regional Events

Forest Ecosystems and Traditional Management the Peoples of the North

I.P. Matveeva, Can.Sc. (Biology), A.M. Salva, Can.Sc. (Geology), M.N. Ammosova, the North-Eastern Federal University

This article is based on the content of organizational activities in the period 2002-2010 on silich farms of Yakutia. Before the workers of peasant and silich farms based on scientific data on the origin of alass depressions and their use, conducted lectures for environmental education, also education of the rural population, etc. In addition to these materials highlighted the interaction of the peoples of North and local ecosystems.

Keywords: Yakutia, alas, forests, landscape, ecosystem, silich farms, permafrost, education.

Human Society and Nature

IV National Conference on Environmental Education

Bookshef

Publications of NIA-Priroda in 2015

Бюллетень

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