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2010 / 6

Вид издания:  Сборник статей

NATURE

General Problems of Nature Management

Rational use of natural resources and stability of agriculture in Russia

D. M. Homyakov, Prof.Dr. Sc. (Engin.),

V. A. Dolginova, postgraduate student, the Faculty of Soil Sciences, the Moscow State University

The paper covers the problems of rational organization of agricultural lands, the state of soil and land resources. Unbalanced increase in the segment of the foodcrops (esp. wheat) to 6062% and above in the total cultivated area, the high fallow rate in the arable land structure, lack of nature conservation technologies reduce the stability of grain harvests. The average productivity of crops in the next five years (from 2011) wouldn’t exceed 18,0 hwt/ha, while the average gross grain harvest (weight after reprocessing) with current cropping mix, sown area and low level of agricultural intensification won’t surpass the rate of 80 million tones per year.

Keywords: rational organization of agricultural lands, the sown areas structure, agroecological constraints on crop production, bioclimatic and soil potential of the territory

Mineral Resources

Uraniferous carbonatite deposits – underestimated source of strategic metal

S. V. Belov, Prof.Dr. Sc (Geology), the Moscow State Open University,

A. A. Frolov, Dr.Sc. (Geology), chief researcher, the AllRussian Research Institute of Mineral Resources (VIMS)

For the first time industrial prospects uraniferous саrbonatite deposits are analysed. It is shown that every tenth of an order 400 known in the world саrbonatite massifs are uraniferous and answering of deposit rank. Types uraniferous ores and technology of their enrichment are described. For the first time are allotted uraniferous ores of a zone of secondary enrichment. The characteristic of the basic uraniferous саrbonatite deposits which are present on all platforms is given. They associate to rift structures and are till now the underestimated source of uranium.

Keywords: uraniferous саrbonatite, strategic metal, technology of enrichment, secondary enrichment, rift structures

Water Resources

Trade in water capacious production as set of market transactions with water resources

M. Ya. Lemeshev, Prof.Dr. Sc. (Economy), The Moscow State Institute of Management,

А. А. Maksimov, engineerhydrotechnician, foreign affairs economist, The Honored meteorologist of the Russian Federation,

B. S. Maslov, Prof.Dr. Sc. (Engin.), the Academician, the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences (RAAS), The Honored worker of a science and techniques of the Russian Federation

In article the idea of trade by water capacious production («virtual water») as a priority direction of development of water sector of the Russian Federation is considered. There is analysed corresponding world experience and practice with reference to agriculture and the industry. Consequences of reorientation of a national water management on trade in «virtual water» on examples of some Russian raw branches focused on export, and also export grain and hydraulic power are estimated. Also trade in virtual water as alternative to territorial redistribution of a river flow is considered.

Keywords: water capacious production, trade in «virtual water» in agriculture, global water crisis, Water strategy of the Russian Federation till 2020, water management role, waterpower engineering, territorial redistribution of a river flow flow

Some results of water use in the Russian Federation during the last years

V. V. Borisov, the Deputy director, the Department of a state policy in the field of water resources, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Protection of the Environment, the Russian Federation

Email: borisov@mnr.gov.ru

In article importance of acceptance in 2009 of Water strategy of the Russian Federation for the period till 2020 and the organization of control over a course of its realization is marked. The short characteristic of water resource potential of Russia is given, the major statistics of use are resulted. Besides, there are considered the basic budgetary indicators reflecting receipt and an expenditure of money resources. The fact sheet for last period is analysed and the estimation of 2010 is given.

Keywords: Water strategy of the Russian Federation for the period till 2010, water resources, water use, dump of the polluted sewage, expenditures for water economy and water protection, the federal budget

Land Resources

Information profile and geographical model of soil as the basis of soil information system

A. A. Ivanov, Dr. Sc.(Biology),

N. N. Rybalsky, postgraduate student, the Faculty of Soil Sciences, the Moscow State University

The purpose of this publication – to describe the approach to developing soil information model and to represent soil as a mathematical object. Proposed a fundamentally new physical model of the soil attribute database based on information profiled geographic model.

Keywords: Soil Information System, a model of the soil, information profiled geographical model, minimal soil information unit, indexed indicator of soil property, soil coordinate system, the quantum of soil information, attribute database of soil.

Biological Resources of a Land

Influence of chemical factors of germination on early morfogenez sprouts

N. V. Eremeeva, postgraduate student, AllRussian Research Institute for Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants

In researches were studied allelopathion stability and autoallelotolerantnost wheat sprouts, influence corrective preparations on early morfogenez sprouts Thlaspi arvense L. Ambiguous influence of chemical factors of germination on early morfogenez sprouts is shown. As chemical factors of germination extracts biogene andogens substances of seeds Thlaspi arvense L. and wheat, and also the preparations containing I+Zn and Se are taken.

Keywords: Thlaspi arvense L., Triticum aestivum L., morfogenez, preparations, fitoremediathion, intensity of growth, allelopathion.

Water Biological Resources

Methodical Questions of Indicators of a Specific Variety of a Phytoplankton: Analysis of Quality of the Bottom Volga Waters (Continuation. The beginning in bulletin № 5)

A.P. Levich, Dr. Sc. (Biology),

D.V. Risnik, postgraduate student, N.G. Bulgakov, Dr. Sc. (Biology),

E.S. Milko, Can. Sc. (Biology),

A. O. Leonov, postgraduate student, the Faculty of Biology, the Moscow State University

The approbation of methods of bioindication, ecological diagnostics and standardization for evaluation of water quality by data of ecological monitoring in lower Volga is carried out. The indices of species variety of phytoplankton: the parameters of rank distributions of species numbers and the indices of uniformity are used for bioindication. The indices of uniformity proved to be more preferable. Environmental factors, which are significant for ecological trouble, are given. For these factors ecologically tolerable levels (ETL) are calculated, nonobservance of ETL leads to the ecological trouble.

Keywords: bioindication, ecological diagnostics, ecological standardisation, species variety indices, ecologically tolerable levels.

Recreational Resources

Key landscape areas as the fundamental for natural heritage of Russia

A. A. Chibilyov, Dr. Sc. (Geogr.), the Corresponding Member, the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director, the Institute of Steppe, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The article deals with current problems of preservation of landscape heritage. Scientific understandings of key landscape areas and landscape refuges have been formulated. It is concluded that the formation of natural and ecological framework of the country should be based on a system of zonal, characteristic, rare and endangered geosystems. The work schedule and activities have been proposed to inventory and plan the network of key landscape areas.

Keywords: natural heritage, key landscape areas, landscape refuges, reserves, protected natural areas.

Environment Protection

New aspects of monitoring of environment in the conditions of scientificallytechnological progress

V.A Rumyantsev, Prof.Dr. Sc. (Geogr.), the Corresponding Member, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Director, L. N. Kryukov, Dr. Sc. (Chemis.), leading scientific employee, Sh. R. Pozdnyakov, Can. Sc. (Engin.), senior scientific employee,

V. N. Rybakin, Can. Sc. (Phys.Mathem.), senior scientific employee,the Institute of Limnology, Siberian Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences

Data on efforts of the USA, of the countries of Europe and the Russian Federation are considered according to risks for the population and environment, connected with en nanomaterials. On an example of Ladoga Lake is shown that en nanosystems clay minerals of ground adjournment in a reservoir can to play a role of catalysis of hydrochemical transformations and to be carriers of harmful substances and viruses. It is recommended to give at monitoring of freshwater reservoirs special attention to tool methods of definition of particles with the sizes to 100 and 500 nanometers.

Keywords: progress, ecology, monitoring, nanoparticle, risk, Ladoga

Radioecology in radiation safety system

I. S. Makarova, Can. Sc. (Biology), the Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resources Mаnagement

The paper describes the history of radioecology. The main stages are identified in the development of this science associated with global radionuclide fallout after nuclear weapons tests, radiation accidents with the release of radioactive substances to the environment. The main of radioecological investigations is the analysis of radioecological aspects of nuclear power engineering (mainly problems of radioactive waste management). Issues are discussed of radiation protection of biota (environment) – the anthropocentric (sanitaryhygienic) and ecocentric approaches.

Keywords: radioecology, history of science, biosphere, environment, radionuclides, radiation safety, nuclear power engineering,

HUVAN SOCIETY AND NATURE

Scientist – science – authority. Interaction principles

V. I. Avilov, Dr. Sc.(Engin.), the Academician, the Russian Academy of Natural Science, senior scientific employee,

S. D. Avilova, Dr. Sc.(Biology), the Academician, the Russian Academy of Natural Science, senior scientific employee, The Institute of Oceanology, the Russian Academy of Science

Scientist is the main scientific production founder. This thesis is laid on the basis of developed principles interaction at the scientist – science – authority anthrop ecosystem. State authority answers before history for new ideas using in the aim of creation but not destruction. It must organize no formal examination and society useful scientific elaboration installation.

Keywords: the scientist, a science, the power, the interaction principles, socially useful scientific workings out, examination.

The Relationship System between Lake Baikal and Society as an Object of Controlled Harmonization

M.S. Toropov, postgraduate student, Irkutsk State Linguistic University

This article substantiates and defines structure of the system of relations between Lake Baikal and society and proposes its logic circuit. There are recommendations how to improve the regulating mechanisms of social subsystems activity in order to harmonize the process of coevolution of Baikal and society.

Keywords: Baikal, social processes, society, coevolution, ecology, model, regulation, classification.

Ecolog i cal Culture and the Purposes of Development of the Millennium

S. N. Glazachev, Prof., MGGU, O. S. Glazachev, MGMU

Postneoclassic understanding of the world in theories of humanitarian systems, role of life values in judgment of problems in ecology, technique and culture are presented. The analysis of a macroshift phenomenon as unity of technologies and creative activity of people is given in valuablesemantic context.

Keywords: ecological culture, postnonclassical understanding of the world, a role of values, the purpose of development of the millennium.

ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

I.B. Koreneva, Can. Sc. (Engin.), the Honored ecologist of the Russian Federation, the Deputy Director, «Sousvodproect»

In article the system of organizational measures and prime projects for formation of structure and realization of ecological function of the state is offered. Backbone function of the state on maintenance of ecological safety of the country should be realized by creation of conditions for ecologisation of wildlife management and preservation of the environment.

Keywords: ecological safety, ecologisation of wildlife management, ecological restrictions, ecosystem approach, ecoeducation

REGIONAL EVENTS

Protection of Water Resources and Waterproviding in Small Towns in Russia

A. N. Vlasov, scientific worker, Noncommercial partnership «Privolzhskiy investment ecological agency»

The paper deals with the current economic and ecological problems of watersupple services in little towns. The dangerous influence of decentralized sewage systems on the environment has been considered. The necessity to integrate the waterandsewage facilities into a system «vodokanal» of little towns into a larger regional corporation within a territorial subject of the Russian Federation for modernization of watersupply and sewage facilities, for reduction of specific cost of water production is proved.

Keywords: little towns, watersupply and sewage facilities, tariffs, damages in lines (sets) of watersupply and sewage facilities, integration of watersupply and sewage facilities into a system «vodokanal».

Бюллетень «Использование и охрана природных ресурсов в России»

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